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Med Surge 4th exam > Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cancer Deck (107)
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1

What is the goal of Healthy People 2020 in terms of CA:

To trduce the number of new CA cases as well as illness, disability, and death caused by CA

2

What is the objective of Healthy People 2020 in relation to CA:

  1. Increase the proportion of CA survivors who report healthy quality of life
  2. Decrease incidence of invasive: colorectal, cervical, BRCA

3

When should men see their MD for a PSA test:

>50 yo should take the prostate-specific antigen (PCA) to screen for prostate CA

4

What are the statistics on the incidence and death rates from all CA:

Both have decreased statistically 

5

What ethnicity will you find the highest rate in CA incidence and mortality:

African American; Vietnamese have a highr incidence of cervical CA

6

What gender is at an increased risk of CA incidence:

Men

7

What CA are gender specific and what are the common CA:

prostate and breast CA; lung, gender specific CA, colon, pancreas 

8

What is the number one barrier to CA prevention:

  1. Poverty, not race, accounts for 10-15% lower survival rate from CA in cultural groups
  2. Lack of health insurance
  3. inability to pay fee-for-service
  4. Limited health care access

9

What are the other barriers to CA prevention:

  1. Knowledge level of risk factors/screening/guidelines 
  2. psychosocial: anxiet/embarrassment...
  3. Cultural beliefs: Asians belief that CA is Karma/God's will
  4. Complimentary Alternative Medicine (CAM): herbal interaction
  5. Level of Acculturation
  6. Health Care provider's enthusiasm for compliance

10

What is the key to the reduction of  CA mortality by reducing incidence of CA:

PREVENTION

11

How is the prevention of CA accomplished:

  1. avoiding carcinogen/altering it's metabolism
  2. Modification of lifestyle
  3. medical intervention: chemoprevention to tx precancerous lesions

12

What type of prevention in the nsg role includes health promotion activites where teaching about the strong association between tobacco and CA and modifying CA risk factors: chronic EtOH...

Primary prevention

13

What type of prevention in the nsg role includes health behaviors that promote early dx/tx that includes: Genetic testing, enhanced surveillance, screening:

Secondary prevention: screening is secondary d/t targeting specific organs r/t risk factors according to family PMHx

14

What type of prevention in the nsg role includes rehabilitation after a disease/condition that already exists to minimize disability and disease progression for productive living:

tertiary prevention: Care givers have the hardest challange in teritary prevention

15

What does the acronym, CAUTION, stand for pretaining to warning signs of CA:

  1. C: change in bowel/bladder habit
  2. A: a sore throat that does not heal
  3. U: unusal bleeding/discharge from
  4. T: Thickening/lumps in/on the body
  5. I:indigestion/difficulty swallowing
  6. O: obivious change on mole
  7. N: Naggy cough/hoarshness

16

A new and abnormal formation of tissue, as a tumor or growth is defined as:

Neoplasm

17

A transformation/formation of cells into CA cells/tumor as a result of chemicals/viral/or radioactive damage to genes is defined as:

carcinogenesis/oncogenesis 

18

Any substance/agent that produces CA or increases the risk of developing CA (AKA cancer promoters) is defined as:

carcinogen

19

Predetermined, undifferentiated cells of human tissues are defined as:

stem cells

20

Stem cells of a particular tissue will ultimately differentiate into what:

mature, functioning cells of that particular tissue into that tissue=hence the word predetermined

21

What theory proposes that it is the loss of intracellular control of profileration (only growing when cells die or not growing beyond respected boundaries) occurs when there's a mutation of stem cells:

Stem cell theory 

22

Where (or what is the target) do CA cells develop from:

stem cells

23

The length of total cell cycle varies d/t what:

Length varies d/t the SPECIFIC type of cell

24

What length of time in the cell-cycle can result in a higher cell kill when utilizing chemotherapy:

SHORTER CELL CYCLE TIME

25

What type of chemotherapy has a better chance of causing cells to reach the S phase in order to effectively kill CA cells:

Combination chemotherapy 

26

A normal, orderly process that progresses from a state of immaturity to state of maturity is defined as:

cellular differentation

27

Normally, what type of functions do cells performed as cells dfferentiate and mature:

specific functions

28

A differentiated cell reverting to a previous undifferentiated state d/t genetic mutation is defined as:

CA cell de-differentiation 

29

What are the two types of normal genes that can be affected by mutation:

  1. proto-oncogene
  2. tumor suppressor gene

30

This type of normal gene that can be affected by mutation is important for regulating normal cellular processes via promoting growth d/t a genetic 'lock' keeping the cell in a mture state is defined as:

proto-oncogenes