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Med Surge 4th exam > PNA > Flashcards

Flashcards in PNA Deck (78)
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1

An acute inflammation of the bronchi in the lower respiratory tract that occurs w/or after a viral infection w/cough its most common symptom is defined as:

acute bronchitis

2

These symptoms: cough that last 10-20 days w/clear, mucoid sputum; HA, malaise, SOB, low-grade fever are associated with what lower respiratory tract infection:

Acute bronchitis

3

What are the usual tx for acute bronchitis;

fluids, rest, antiinflammatory meds, cough suppressants, and bronchodilators may be Rx.

4

How can you tell the difference between PNA from acute bronchitis:

X-rays will show no evidence of consolidation or infiltrates for bronchitis as seen in PNA

5

A highly contagious infection of the lower respiratory tract w/gram negative bacillus; dangerous to children, especially under 6 mo; w/a 6-10 wk characteristic cough followed by inspiratory gasps and a "whooping" sound is defined as:

Pertussis

6

What is the Rx tx for pertussis:

Zithromax

7

An acute inflammation of the lung parenchyma caused by a microbial organism is defined as:

Pneumonia

8

PNA occurs as a result of what:

PNA occurs when defense mechanisms becomes or are overwhelmed by the virulence or quantity of infectious agents

9

What age groups have high incidences of death d/t morbidity:

65 yo

10

What are the defense mechanism that PNA can compromise:

filtration of air, warming/humidification, epiglottis closure over the trachea, secretion of immunoglobin-A, mucociliary escalator mechanism, and alveolar macrophages

11

How doe altered LOC predispose a pt to PNA:

depresses cough and epiglottic reflexes allowing aspiration of organisms into the lungs

12

How does tracheal intubation predispose a pt to PNA:

Interferes w/cough reflex and mucociliary escalator

13

How does air pollution, smoking, and toxic gases predispose a pt to PNA:

Impairs the mucociliary escalator mechanism

14

How do diseases, such as DM, EtOH, leukemia predispose a pt to PNA:

They are associated w/increased frequency of gram negative bacilli in the oropharynx

15

Some other predisposing factors of PNA include:

immunosuppression d/t drugs, HIV, age, malnutrition; immobility; altered oropharangeal flora (d/t abx); NPO status, poor oral hygiene; tracheoesophageal fistulas

16

When an organism reaches the lungs from the nasopharynx or oropharynx; these organisms that cause most PNA of healthy adults utilize what type of method in catching PNA:

aspiration

17

When organisms are present in the air that's inhaled causing PNA (mycoplasma PNA and fungal pna) will utilize what type of method in catching PNA:

inhalation

18

When an organism spreads from a primary infection elsewhere in the body (S. aureus) utilizes what type of method in catching PNA:

hematogenous

19

This Type of PNA are pulmonary consequences resulting from entry of endogenous or exogenous substances into the lower airway is defined as what type of PNA:

Aspiration

20

What is the most common form of infection associated with aspiration PNA:

Bacterial infection that normally resides in the upper airways

21

Where can aspiration PNA occur at:

Community or Hospital

22

What are some other substances (other than bacteria) may be aspirated:

gastric contents, exogenous chemical contents, irritating gases

23

How can aspirating PNA impair lung defenses:

Causes inflammatory changes which leads to bacterial growth resulting in PNA

24

What are some of the common conditions that increase the risk of aspirating PNA:

Decreased LOC, difficulty swallowing, and nasogastric secretions

25

If the aspirating material is an inert substance, such as barium, then this type of aspirating PNA is caused by:

mechanical obstruction of the airways

26

If the aspirating material is gastric juices, then this type of aspirating PNA is caused by:

chemical injury within 48-72 hrs later

27

What are the types of PNA classifications:

CAP, HAP, ventilator-associated PNA (VAP), health care associated PNA (HCAP), PNA in the immunocompromised host, aspiration PNA

28

This classification of PNA is a lower respiratory infection with onset in the community or during the first 2-days of hospitalization is classified as:

Community-acquired PNA; w/o comorbidity 60 yo pts

29

The main causative agent that causes CAP requiring hospitalization si:

Gram + streptococcus PNA

30

Streptococcus, haemophilus influenza, legionella, S. aureus, viruses are causative agents of CAP PNA:

CAP