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Flashcards in TB Deck (69)
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1

An airborne, infectious disease (usually of the lungs) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is defined as:

TB

2

What are some predisposing factors of TB:

Poor economic conditions, inadequate health care, malnutrition, overcrowding, substandard housing, immunocompromised (DM, ESRD, HIV, AIDS), health care workers

3

What type of bacterium is TB:

Mycobacterium TB is gram + aerobic, rod shaped acid fast bacillus

4

Why is TB not highly infectious:

requires close, frequent, repeated exposures (w/in 6 inches of the persons mouth) via airborne droplets

5

Can you catch TB by touching items from a TB pt:

No, TB cannot be spread by hands or objects

6

Can you kill TB with disinfectants:

No

7

WHat is TB sensitive to:

sensitive to heat and UV light

8

What is the amount of micron particles of TB filtered by the nose:

10 micron-particles

9

What is the amount of micron particles of TB cleared by the mucociliary clearance system:

5-10 micron particles

10

What is the amount of micron particles of TB inhaled by the alveoli:

1-5 micron particles

11

What is the amount of droplet nuclei released when a TB pt coughs:

3000 droplet nuclei

12

In the pathophysiology of TB, what occurs after exposure/inhalation of infected aerosol via droplet nuclei:

Tubercle bacilli invasion in the apices of the lungs or near the pleurae of the lower lobes

13

In the pathophysiology of TB, what occurs after the tubercle bacilli invades the apices of the lungs or the lower lobes of the lungs:

Inflammation of the alveoli where the bacilli replicates slowly spreading via lymphatic system and macrophages begin to ingest organisms

14

In the pathophysiology of TB, what occurs after inflammation of the alveoli d/t bacilli replicating slowly while spreading via the lymphatic system:

Cellular immunity limits further multiplication/spread of infection

15

In the pathophysiology of TB, what occurs after cellular immunity limits further spread of infection:

Tissue granuloma occurs to contain the bacteria in order to prevent further replication and the tissue transforms to a fibrous tissue mass

16

In the pathophysiology of TB, what occurs after granuloma and fibrous tissue mass:

Necrotic generation occurs

17

In the pathophysiology of TB, what occurs after necrotic generation:

Ghon tubercle (calcified lesions) form scars that may heal after a period of time

18

In the pathophysiology of TB, what occurs after Ghon tubercle:

Tubercle bacilli immunity develops 2-6 wks after infection and is maintained in the body as long as living bacilli remain in the body

19

TB infection in a person who does not have the active TB disease is not considered a case of TB and is defined as:

Latent TB infection (LTBI)

20

How is LTBI reactivated:

compromised/inadequate immune system response/reinfection/activation of dormant bacteria will cause the Ghon tubercle to ulcerate the cheesy material into the bronchi

21

Where else in the body can be infected with TB:

CNS (meninges), GI tract/larynx, lymph nodes, skin, skeletal system, GU system, adrenal glands

22

What class is: No TB exposure

0

23

What class is: TB exposure, no evidence infection

1

24

What class is: TB clinically active

3

25

What class is: TB, not clinically active (hx of TB)

4

26

What class is: TB suspect (dx is pending)

5

27

What are the initial S/S of active TB:

fatigue, malaise, weight-loss (unexplained anorexia), low-grade fevers, night sweats, cough that becomes more frequent that may produce mucoid or purulent sputum; pleuritic pain, flu-like symptoms

28

Is dyspnea and hemoptysis common in TB:

No. Dyspnea is unusual, but may occur. Hemoptysis occurs in advance cases of TB.

29

What is the objective data for TB:

Physical exam presents crackles over lung apices/maybe dyspnea; tuberculin skin test reaction; cough is initially nonproductive but progresses to be mucopurulent (hemoptysis is associated w/advance cases of TB), CXR presenting pulmonary infiltrate

30

What are the elderly atypical S/S of TB:

altered mental status, fever, anorexia, weight loss, TST produces no reaction or will have a delayed reaction a week after TST