Flashcards in Cancer nutrition Deck (26):
What are ecological and migrant studies?
Geographic studies of people
What are case-control studies?
Study patients with and without cancer and look at differences in their pasts
What are prospective cohort studies?
Follow study participants and see which ones develop cancer
What are randomized-control studies?
Give people randomized diet plans and see who develops cancer
What are meta-analyses?
Mathematically combine multiple studies
What four cancers are more common in affluent countries?
What five cancers are more common in poor countries?
(3) Oral cavity
(5) Uterine cervix
What decreases risk for colorectal cancer?
(2) Dietary fiber
What increases risk for colorectal cancer?
(1) Processed meat
(2) Red meat
(4) High body fat
(5) Abdominal fatness
What increases and decreases risk for premenopausal breast cancer?
Decrease: lactation, body fatness
Increase: alcohol, height, high birth weight
What increases and decreases risk for postmenopausal breast cancer?
Decrease: lactation, physical activity
Increase: alcohol, height, body fatness, abdominal fatness, adult weight gain
What increases and decreases risk for prostate cancer?
Decrease: foods containing lycopene
Increase: high diet calcium
What effect do milk and dairy products have on cancer risk in men?
Decrease: colorectal cancer
Increase: prostate cancer
How can patients reduce their risk of developing cancer?
(1) Be lean without being underweight
(2) Be physically active for 30 min per day
(3) Avoid sugary drinks
(4) Eat more veggies and fruits
(5) Limit consumption of red meats
(6) Limit consumption of alcohol
(7) Limit salt intake
(8) Dont use supplements to protect against cancer
What cancers does tallness increase risk for?
(2) Postmenopausal breast
(5) Premenopausal breast
What cancers does exercise reduce risk for?
(2) Postmenopausal breast
What cancers can vegetable and fruit consumption reduce risk for?
What cancer does red meat consumption increase risk for?
What cancer does high salt intake increase risk for?
What cancer does β-carotene increase risk for?
What cancer does calcium reduce risk for?
What did the EPIC study investigate and find?
(1) The effect of 7 recommendations to reduce cancer
(2) The study found that every recommendation followed reduced risk for total cancers, especially colorectal and stomach
(3) Prostate, ovarian, pancreatic, and bladder cancers were unaffected
What changes in the a cancer patient's rules of healthy eating?
Priority is weight management/stabilization/gain
How should diet be changed to suit cancer patients?
(1) Limit beverages with meals - fluid between meals instead
(2) Increase fiber intake
(3) Increase caloric content of food
(4) Small, frequent foods to address early satiety
Good diet management leads to better outcomes
What is the obesity paradox in cancer patients?
Obesity increases risk for developing cancer but also leads to greater survival