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Flashcards in Leukocytosis Deck (11):
1

What is normal WBC count?

4000-11000 cells/uL

2

What is an enzyme found in WBCs that is typically not present in cancerous cells?

Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase (LAP)
If not elevated with high WBC count, suggestive of cancer

3

What is a leukemoid reaction?

(1) Non-cancerous elevation of WBCs as a result of (2) infection or (3) stress, often characterized by (4) presence of early precursors and (5) elevated LAP

4

What is the differential diagnosis of secondary neutrophilia?

(1) Infection
(2) Chronic inflammation
(3) Physiologic stress (burn, exercise, seizure)
(4) Marrow stimulation
(5) Splenectomy (major storage location for WBCs)
(6) Medications (glucocorticoids, lithium, beta agonists)
(7) Smoking

5

What can be observed in neutrophilia from infection?

(1) Left shift, increased bands
(2) Dohle bodies (blue-grey inclusions that are remnants of RER) and toxic granules

6

What are three causes of primary neutrophilia?

(1) Hereditary neutrophilia syndrome (splenomegaly, skull abnormalities, elevated LAP)
(2) Chronic idiopathic neutrophilia
(3) Down Syndrome

7

What is the cause of leukocyte adhesion deficiency?

Neutrophils are defective and lack CD18, preventing margination and leading to infection despite high circulating neutrophils

8

What are four primary immune disorders of leukocytosis?

(1) Hyper IgM
(2) Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID)
(3) X-linked agammaglobulinemia
(4) Cyclic neutropenia

9

What are five secondary causes of lymphocytosis?

Infection: (1) viral (EBV, HIV), (2) bacterial (Bartonella, Brucella, syphilis)
(3) Stress
(4) Splenectomy
(5) Hypersensitivity reactions

10

At what absolute eosinophil count can end stage organ damage occur?

AEC > 500 in blood

11

What parasitic infections cause eosinophilia?

(1) Strongyloides stercoralis
(2) Trichonella
(3) Toxocara