Oncologic emergencies Flashcards Preview

DPPT Unit 2 > Oncologic emergencies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Oncologic emergencies Deck (15):
1

What are five oncologic emergencies?

(1) Febrile neutropenia
(2) Spinal cord compression
(3) Hypercalcemia
(4) Superior vena cava syndrome
(5) Hyperviscosity syndrome

2

What is febrile neutropenia?

Fever occurring 10-14 days after chemotherapy due to low neutrophil count

3

How is febrile neutropenia managed?
(3)

(1) Always evaluate fever after chemotherapy
(2) Start patient on broad spectrum antibiotics
(3) Identify infection by blood culture, then treat specific organism

4

What is the mechanism spinal cord compression?

Spine metastases with expansion into the epidural space

5

What is the progression of symptoms in spinal cord compression?

(1) Pain
(2) Weakness
(3) Sensory deficits
(4) Paraplegia

6

What cancers typically cause spinal cord compression?

Common cancers (nasopharyngeal, breast, lung, lymphoma, multiple myeloma)
Adenocarcinoma
Neuroblastoma, Ewing's sarcoma

7

What is the treatment for spinal cord compression?

(1) Steroids to decrease cord edema
(2) External beam irradiation
(3) Surgical decompression

8

What causes hypercalcemia?

(1) Paraneoplastic tumor produces factors that cause bone resorption or tubular calcium reabsorption
(2) Osteoclast-mediated upregulation of osteoclast-activating factors

9

How is hypercalcemia treated?

(1) Rapid rehydration to replace intravascular contraction and prevent renal calcium reabsorption
(2) Bisphosphonates - inhibit bone resorption

10

What causes superior vena cava syndrome?

Compression of SVC by malignancies in superior mediastinum

11

What are the symptoms of SVC syndrome?

(1) Dyspnea
(2) Facial swelling
(3) Distension of neck and chest wall

12

How is SVC syndrome treated?

(1) Radiation therapy
(2) Endovascular stenting
(3) Angioplasty
(4) Thrombolytic therapy
(5) Surgery

13

What are the causes of hyperviscosity syndrome?

(1) IgM in Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia
(2) IgA or IgG in multiple myeloma

14

What are signs of hyperviscosity syndrome?

(1) Changing mental status
(2) Pulmonary distress
(3) Renal failure

15

How is hyperviscosity syndrome treated?

Prompt plasmapheresis to remove immunoglobulin