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Flashcards in carbohydrate metabolism Deck (14)
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1

glycogen to glucose

glycogenisis

2

glucose to glycogen

glycogenolysis

3

glucose to pyruvate

glycolysis

4

pyruvate to pyruvate

gluconeogenesis

5

two enzymes which convert glucose to glucose 6 phosphate

glucokinase and hexokinase

6

glucokinase has a low affinity for glucose but high capacity and induces insulin and when glucose levels are high stores excessive glucose in the liver. where is it found

liver and pancreatic beta cells

7

hexokinase is found in most tissues and when glucose levels are low is sequesters glucose in the tissues and it has a high affinity fro glucose but low capacity what is the effect on glucose 6 phsotpahe

inhibits

8

glycolysis coverts glucose to pyruvate what type of process is this

anaerobic process
the rate-determining enzyme is phosphofructosekinase-1

9

gluconeogeneiss converts non-carb substrates like pyruvate or lactate to glucose where does it occur

mainly liver , kidney and intestinal epithelium

the rate-determining enzyme is fructose-1,6-biphosphatase
many of the steps are the reverse of the steps found in glycolysis. However, there are 4 'non-reversible' enzymes that are key to gluconeogenesis. It is important to learn these for the exam:

10

what are the 4 non-reversible enzymes key to gluconeogensis

pathway produces fresh glucose

Pyruvate carboxylase
PEP carboyxlase
Fructose-1,6-biphosphatase
Glucose-6-phosphatase

11

pyruvate carboxylase converts pyruvate to oxaloacetate where

mitochondria

12

PEP carboyxlase and Fructose-1,6-biphosphatase work in the cytosol and convert Oxaloacetate → phosphoenolpyruvate and Fructose-1,6-biphosphate → fructose-6-phosphate respectively

glucose 6 phosphatase makes glucose but where does this work

ER

Deficient in von Gierke's disease

Not present in muscle (why muscles cannot generate glucose)

13

why can't muscles generate glucose

because they don't have the enzyme
glucose 6 phosphatase

14

glycogneolysis coverts glycogen to glucose 1 phosphate what is the key enzyme

the key enzyme is glycogen phosphorylase. Following the action of glycogen phosphorylase α-1,6-glucosidase removes the final glucose residue of the branch as a molecule of glucose