Flashcards in insulin Deck (8)
which out of these stimulate insulin release
Beta adrenergic drugs
Insulin is a peptide hormone, produced by beta cells of the pancreas, and is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. Insulin causes cells in the liver, skeletal muscles, and fat tissue to absorb glucose from the blood. In the liver and skeletal muscles, glucose is stored as glycogen, and in fat cells (adipocytes) it is stored as
Pro-insulin is formed by the rough endoplasmic reticulum in pancreatic beta cells. Then pro-insulin is cleaved to form
insulin and C-peptide.
where is insulin stored and when is it released
Insulin is stored in secretory granules and released in response to Ca2+.
5 effects of insulin
Secreted in response to hyperglycaemia
Glucose utilisation and glycogen synthesis
Reduces muscle protein loss
Increases cellular uptake of potassium (via stimulation of Na+/K+ ATPase pump)
side effects of insulin therapy
Hypoglycaemia--> sweating, anxiety, blurred vision, confusion, aggression
conscious patients should take 10-20g of a short-acting carbohydrate (e.g. a glass of Lucozade or non-diet drink, three or more glucose tablets, glucose gel)
glucagon kit for emergencies where the patient is not able to orally ingest a short-acting carbohydrate
patients who have frequent hypoglycaemic episodes may develop reduced awareness.
beta-blockers reduce hypoglycaemic awareness
typically presents as atrophy/lumps of subcutaneous fat
can be prevented by rotating the injection site
may cause erractic insulin absorption
what things inhibit insulin release
Alpha adrenergic drugs