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Flashcards in insulin Deck (8)
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which out of these stimulate insulin release

Amino acid
Vagal cholinergic
Fatty acids
Beta adrenergic drugs

not atenolol


Insulin is a peptide hormone, produced by beta cells of the pancreas, and is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. Insulin causes cells in the liver, skeletal muscles, and fat tissue to absorb glucose from the blood. In the liver and skeletal muscles, glucose is stored as glycogen, and in fat cells (adipocytes) it is stored as



Pro-insulin is formed by the rough endoplasmic reticulum in pancreatic beta cells. Then pro-insulin is cleaved to form

insulin and C-peptide.


where is insulin stored and when is it released

Insulin is stored in secretory granules and released in response to Ca2+.


5 effects of insulin

Secreted in response to hyperglycaemia
Glucose utilisation and glycogen synthesis
Inhibits lipolysis
Reduces muscle protein loss
Increases cellular uptake of potassium (via stimulation of Na+/K+ ATPase pump)


side effects of insulin therapy

Hypoglycaemia--> sweating, anxiety, blurred vision, confusion, aggression

conscious patients should take 10-20g of a short-acting carbohydrate (e.g. a glass of Lucozade or non-diet drink, three or more glucose tablets, glucose gel)

glucagon kit for emergencies where the patient is not able to orally ingest a short-acting carbohydrate
patients who have frequent hypoglycaemic episodes may develop reduced awareness.

beta-blockers reduce hypoglycaemic awareness

typically presents as atrophy/lumps of subcutaneous fat
can be prevented by rotating the injection site
may cause erractic insulin absorption


what things inhibit insulin release

Alpha adrenergic drugs
Beta blockers
Sympathetic nerves


what is the complication of diabetes treatment with injection g

Lipodystrophy is a common and easily-identifiable complication of insulin treatment. Repeated injections into the same site can cause changes in the subcutaneous fat, which can lead to erratic insulin levels and impact on diabetes control. It can be avoided by rotating injection sites.