Cardiac physiology, USMLE Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardiac physiology, USMLE Deck (42):
1

MAP formula

CO X TPR

2

Pulse pressure approximates

SV

3

Maintenance of CO: Early stages of exercise

1) Inc HR
2) Inc contractility

4

Maintenance of CO: Late stages of exercise

Inc HR (SV plateaus)

5

SV is a function of

1) Contractility
2) Preload
3) 1/afterload

6

Myocardial O2 demand is increased by

Increase in
1) Heart size
2) Heart rate
3) Heart contractility
4) Afterload

7

Arterial vs venous dilation: Nitroglycerin

Venous >> arterial

8

Arterial vs venous dilation: Hydralazine

Arterial >> venous

9

States that increase blood viscosity

1) Polycythemia
2) Hyperproteinemia
3) Hereditary spherocytosis

10

Blood vessel that accounts for most of TPR

Arteriole

11

Phase of cardiac cycle which is the period of highest O2 consumption

Isovolumetric contraction

12

Systole vs diastole: S1

Systole

13

Systole vs diastole: S2

Diastole

14

Systole vs diastole: S3

Diastole

15

Systole vs diastole: S4

Atrial systole, ventricular diastole

16

S3 is normally heard in

1) Children
2) Pregnant women

17

T/F: S4 is always pathologic

T

18

Wave formed due to RV contraction against a closed tricuspid valve

c wave

19

Wave formed due to filling of right atrium against a closed tricuspid valve

v wave

20

x descent is seen during

Reduced ejection

21

y wave is seen during

Rapid filling

22

Normal S2 split is seen in

Normal inspiration

23

Wide S2 splitting is seen in

Delay in RV emptying

24

Conditions that delay RV emptying

1) Pulmonic stenosis
2) RBBB

25

Fixed S2 splitting is seen in

ASD

26

Fixed S2 splitting seen in ASD is due to

Left to right shunt that increases right heart volumes and flow through pulmonic valve

27

Paradoxical S2 splitting is seen in

Delay in LV emptying

28

Conditions that delay LV emtpying

1) Aortic stenosis
2) LBBB

29

Maneuver-effect: Inspiration

Increase RA return

30

Maneuver-effect: Expiration

Increase LA return

31

Maneuver-effect: Hand grip

Increase SVR

32

Maneuver-effect: Valsalva

Decrease venous return

33

Maneuver-effect: Rapid squatting

Increase venous return

34

Maneuver-effect: Prolonged squatting

Increase afterload

35

Abnormal systolic heart sounds

1) MR
2) TR
3) AS
4) VSD
5) MVP

36

Abnormal diastolic heart sounds

1) AR
2) MS

37

Characteristic murmur: MR/TR

Holosystolic, high-pitched, blowing

38

Characteristic murmur: AS

Crescendo-decrescendo following an ejection click

39

Characteristic murmur: VSD

Holosystolic, harsh

40

Characteristic murmur: MVP

Late systolic crescendo with midsystolic click

41

Characteristic murmur: AR

Immediate decrescendo, high-pitched, blowing

42

Characteristic murmur: MS

Delayed late diastolic, rumbling, following an opening snap