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Flashcards in Special Topics, Topnotch Deck (48):
1

Part of brain that regulates temp

Hypothalamus

2

Location of sensors for temp regulation

Skin and hypothalamus

3

Radiator system of the body

Skin

4

Mechanisms of heat loss, greatest to least

Radiation > evaporation > conduction to air > conduction to objects

5

Interleukins that mediate fever

IL-1 and IL-6

6

Excessive sweating causing fainting

Heat exhaustion

7

High temp causes tissue damage and impaired responses

Heat stroke

8

Substances that cause malignant hyperthermia

Succinylcholine and halothane

9

Antidote for malignant hyperthermia

Dantrolene

10

M vs F: Strength per sq.cm of x-sec area

Equal

11

Energy system active during the first 8-10 sec of exercise

Phosphagen energy system

12

Energy system active 1.3-1.6 mins after phosphagen system is used up

Glycogen-lactic acid system

13

Energy system that is limited by availability of energy

Aerobic system

14

Supplies 50% of energy of aerobic system after 3-4 hours

Fats

15

How long does it take to recover muscle glycogen

2 days

16

Increase in muscle strength is ALWAYS due to

Increase in muscle size

17

Maximal breathing capacity

150-170L/min

18

Pulmonary ventilation during maximal exercise

100-110L/min

19

Resting CO in normal adult

5L/min

20

CO in exercising athlete

30L/min

21

CO in exercising non-athlete

20L/min

22

CO at maximal exercise

90% of maximun

23

___% of nutrient energy is converted to muscles work

25

24

Temp that causes heat stroke

>42C

25

Sweat glands acclimatize to hot and humid weather because of

Aldosterone

26

Hormone that causes muscle strength and aggressiveness but can also cause MI and stroke

Testosterone

27

Most important effect of high altitude

Decreased mental proficiency

28

Altitude at which seizures may occur

18,000ft

29

Altitude at which coma and death may occur

23,000ft

30

Mechanisms for acclimatization to low PO2 (5)

1) Inc pulmonary ventilation by 1.65x in a few minutes to 5x in a few days
2) Polycythemia
3) Increase diffusing capacity of O2 and inc 2,3 bpg
4) Angiogenesis
5) Inc ability of cells to use O2 despite low PO2 via inc in mitochondria and oxidative enzymes

31

Mechanisms of acute mountain sickness

1) Acute pulmonary edema
2) Acute cerebral edema

32

Mechanisms of chronic mountain sickness

1) Pulmonary vasoconstriction
2) Right sided heart failure

33

Unit of force equal to the force exerted by gravity to which the body is subjected when it is accelerated

G force

34

Positive G vs Negative G: More dangerous due to shunting of blood to LE hence away from brain

Positive G

35

G that may cause LOC and death

+6 to +10

36

G that may cause vertebral fracture

20

37

G that may result in red-out of the eyes and transient psychotic disturbances

Negative G

38

Negative G that may result in death

-20

39

Constant speed that a freely falling object eventually reaches and prevents further acceleration

Terminal velocity

40

Speed of terminal velocity

175 ft/sec

41

A parachute reduces speed of skydiver to

1/9th terminal velocity

42

O2 in a sealed aircraft

20% at 760 mmHg

43

Decreased as a chronic effect of being in space (5)

1) Blood volume
2) RBC
3) Muscle strength
4) Max CO
5) Ca and PO4 in bones

44

Depth at which Nitrogen pressure causes joviality

120ft

45

Depth at which Nitrogen pressure causes drowsiness

200-250ft

46

Depth at which there is raptures of the depths

Beyond 250ft

47

Manifestations of decompression sickness (3)

1) Bends
2) Chokes
3) Caisson's disease

48

Gas used beyond 250ft to prevent decompression sickness

Helium