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Flashcards in Sensory, Topnotch Deck (190):
1

Characteristic of sensory receptors: Specific sensation, specific receptor

Differential sensitivity

2

Characteristic of sensory receptors: Specific sensation, specific pathway

Labeled line principle

3

Characteristic of sensory receptors: Change in a way receptor responds to sequential or prolonged stimulation

Adaptation

4

Receptor for continuous stimulus strength (detects steady stimulus)

Slowly-adapting receptor

5

Slowly-adapting receptor is aka

Tonic receptor

6

Receptor for detecting change in stimulus strength (detects onset and offset of stimulus)

Rapidly-adapting receptor

7

Rapidly-adapting receptor is aka

Phasic receptor

8

Tonic vs phasic receptor: Has a predictive function

Phasic

9

Slowly-adapting receptor examples (5)

1) Golgi tendon
2) Muscle spindle
3) Slow pain receptor
4) Baroreceptor
5) Chemoreceptor

10

Rapidly-adapting receptor example

Pacinian corpuscle

11

Regions of the skin where stimuli can change the firing rate of the sensory neurons

Receptive field

12

Type of receptive field: Smaller with well-defined border

Type 1

13

Type of receptive field: Wider with poorly-defined border

Type 2

14

Tactile receptor: Found in the skin

Free nerve endings

15

Tactile receptor: Non-hairy skin especially the lips and fingertips

Meissner's corpuscles (FA1)

16

Tactile receptor: Expanded tip tactile receptor that combine to form Iggo Dome Receptors

Merkel Discs (SA1)

17

Tactile receptor: Found in hair base

Hair end organs

18

Tactile receptor: Found in deep skin, internal tissues, and joint capsules

Ruffini end organs (SA2)

19

Tactile receptor: Onion-like structure in skin and deep fascia

Pacinian corpuscles (FA2)

20

Tactile receptor: Multi-branched and encapsulated

Ruffini end organs

21

Tactile receptor: Touch and pressure

Free nerve endings

22

Tactile receptor: Movement of objects and low frequency vibration

Meissner corpuscles

23

Tactile receptor: Continuous touch

Merkel discs

24

Tactile receptor: Movement of object on skin

Hair end organs

25

Tactile receptor: Pressure

Ruffini end organs

26

Tactile receptor: Localizing touch

Merkel discs

27

Tactile receptor: Degree of joint rotation

Ruffini end organs

28

Tactile receptor: High-frequency vibration

Pacinian corpuscles

29

Tactile receptor: Determine texture

Merkel discs

30

Tactile receptor: 2-point tactile discrimination

Meissner corpuscles

31

Tactile receptor: Stretch

Ruffini

32

Cell body of first order neurons are found in

Dorsal root or cranial nerve ganglia

33

Cell body of second order neurons are found in

Spinal cord or brainstem

34

Cell body of third order neurons are found in

Thalamus

35

Cell body of fourth order neurons are found in

Sensory cortex

36

2 somatosensory pathways

1) Dorsal column medial lemniscus pathway
2) Anterolateral/spinothalamic tract

37

Dorsal column medial lemniscus: Fibers

Large myelinated

38

Dorsal column medial lemniscus: Conduction velocity

30-110 m/s

39

Dorsal column medial lemniscus: Temporal and spatial fidelity

Present

40

Dorsal column medial lemniscus: Decussation

Near medulla

41

Dorsal column medial lemniscus: Sensations

Those requiring high degree of localisation and fine gradation of intensity

42

Anterolateral system: Fibers

Smaller myelinated

43

Anterolateral system: Conduction velocity

8-40 m/s

44

Anterolateral system: Fidelity and accuracy

Less

45

Anterolateral system: Decussation

Immediately

46

Anterolateral system: Sensations

1) Pain
2) Temp
3) Tickle and itch
4) Sexual

47

Relay station for sensation

Thalamus

48

Thalamic nucleus of dorsal column-medial lemniscal pathway

VPL

49

Thalamic nucleus of trigeminothalamic pathway

VPM

50

Thalamic nucleus of anterolateral system

VPI

51

Largest areas in the homunculus (3)

1) Face
2) Hands
3) Fingers

52

T/F Pain receptors have little or no adaptation

T

53

Fast pain is felt after how many seconds of stimulus

0.1

54

Slow pain is felt after how many seconds of stimulus

1

55

Referred pain is due to sharing of

2nd order neurons in the spinal cord of VISCERAL and DERMATOMAL pain fibers

56

Endogenous analgesia system inhibits pain at what level

Spinal cord

57

2 systems of endogenous analgesia

1) Opiod-mediated (BED-beta endorphins, enkephalins, dynorphins)
2) Non-opiod mediated (stress)

58

Temperature gradations

Freesing cold > cold > cool > indifferent > warm > hot > burning hot

59

Warmth receptors

Free nerve endings

60

Cold receptors

A delta

61

Pain receptors are stimulated at what temp

Less than 15 degrees or > 43C

62

Pain receptors adapt only between what temp

20-40C

63

Visual system detects and interprets electromagnetic waves between

400-750nm

64

Eye: Outer layer (3)

1) Conjunctiva
2) Cornea
3) Sclera

65

Eye: Middle layer (2)

1) Iris
2) Choroid

66

Eye: Inner layer

Retina

67

5 layers of the cornea

ABCDE
1) Anterior epithelium
2) Basement membrane or anterior-limiting membrane
3) Corneal stroma (thickest)
4) Descemet membrane or posterior-limiting membrane
5) Endothelium

68

Cornea: Anterior epithelium, lining

Stratified squamous non-keratinizing

69

Main refractive medium of the eye

Cornea

70

Sclera covers posterior ___ of globe

5/6

71

2 muscles of iris

1) Sphincter pupillae (miosis via M)
2) Dilator pupillae (mydriasis via a1)

72

Photoreceptor for color

CCC
Cones
Color
Center of retina

73

Photoreceptor for dim light

Rods at the periphery of retina

74

Ability to bend light

Refractive power

75

Measure of refractive power

Diopters

76

T/F Lens has a constant refractive power determined by zonula fibers

F, variable

77

Relaxed ciliary muscles: Tension from suspensory muscles

Increased

78

Relaxed ciliary muscles: Shape of lens

Flat

79

Contracted ciliary muscles: Tension from suspensory muscles

Decreased

80

Contracted ciliary muscles: Shape of lens

Spherical

81

Shape of lens for distant vision

Flat

82

Shape of lens for near vision

Spherical

83

Snellen fraction

Testing distance (6 ft or 20m) / Smallest line patient can read on the chart

84

Legal blindness

20/200 or less than 10 degrees of visual field in better eye

85

20/20 vision is achieved at what age

2-4 y/o

86

Layers of tear film

1) Lipid
2) Aqueous (most abundant)
3) Mucin

87

Automatic adjustment in the focal length of the lens to permit retinal focus at varying distances

Accommodation

88

Accommodation provides an additional ___ diopters

14

89

Maintains shape of eye

Intraocular fluid

90

3 chambers of the eye

1) Anterior
2) Posterior
3) Vitreous space

91

Anterior chamber of the eye is ___ mm deep

3-4

92

Rate of aqueous humor production

0.25 mL every 10 hours

93

Aqueous humor: Produced by

Ciliary body

94

Aqueous humor: Exits into

Canal of Schlemm

95

Main determinant of IOP

Aqueous humor

96

Normal IOP

8-21 mmHg

97

Gold standard for measurement of IOP

Applanation/Goldmann tonometry

98

Composition of vitreous humour (4)

1) Water (99%)
2) Collagen
3) Hyaluronic acid
4) Soluble protein

99

Amount of vitreous humor

4mL

100

Aqueous humor flow

1) Ciliary body
2) Posterior chamber
3) Pupil
4) Anterior chamber
5) Trabecular meshwork
6) Anterior chamber angle
7) Canal of Schlemm
8) Uveoscleral veins

101

Effect of light on photoreceptors

Hyperpolarization

102

Point of sharpest vision

Macula lutea

103

Area of central vision

Macula lutea

104

Location of macula lutea

2 disc diameters TEMPORAL to the optic disk

105

Yellow spot in the retina

Fovea centralis

106

Depression in the macula

Fovea centralis

107

Area of highest visual resolution

Fovea centralis

108

Area of the retina with highest cone density

Fovea centralis

109

Anatomic blind spot

Optic disc

110

Protrusion of optic disc into the vitreous space due to increased ICP

Papilledema

111

Macular degeneration refers to deterioration of which layer of the retina

Pigment epithelium

112

In albinism, which part of the retina lacks melanin

Pigment epithelium

113

Area in the retina where rods and cones are absent

Optic disc

114

Normal cup/disc ratio

0.3

115

Normal arrangement of retinal vessels in the optic disc

Artery nasal to vein

116

Normal artery:vein diameter ratio

2:3

117

Interneuron that connects rods and cones with ganglion cells

Bipolar cells

118

Known as contrast detectors of the eye

Bipolar cells

119

Retinal glial cell

Mueller cell

120

Cells that maintains internal geometry of the retina

Mueller cells

121

Output cell of the retina: Color

P cells

122

Output cell of the retina: Illumination

IlluMination: M cells

123

Output cell of the retina: Unknown function

eWan: W cells

124

Output cell of the retina: Form

Porm: P cells

125

Output cell of the retina: Fine details

Pine details: P cells

126

Output cell of the retina: Movement

Movement: M cells

127

Cells whose axons form the optic nerve

Mueller cells

128

Rods vs Cones: Contains 1 type of photopigment

Rods

129

Rods vs Cones: Contains 3 types of photopigment

Cones

130

Rods vs Cones: Greater amount of photopigment

Rods

131

Rods vs Cones: More sensitive

Rods

132

Rods vs Cones: Adapts more rapidly

Cones

133

Rods vs Cones: Higher visual acuity

Cones

134

Rods vs Cones: Not present in fovea

Rods

135

Condition in which light rays converge in front of the retina

LMN
Long eyeball, myopia, near-sighted

136

Condition in which light rays converge behind the retina

Short eyeball, hyperopia, far-sighted

137

Condition in which light rays converge at the retina

Emmetropia

138

Condition brought about by irregular curvature of the cornea

Astigmatism

139

Age-related loss of accommodation

Presbyopia

140

First sign of vitamin A deficiency

Nyctalopia (night blindness)

141

Corrective lenses: Myopia

Concave or negative

142

Corrective lenses: Hyperopia

Convex or positive

143

Corrective lenses: Presbyopia

Bifocals

144

Corrective lenses: Astigmatism

Cylindrical

145

Speed of sound waves in air

335 m/sec

146

Sound waves: Frequency is measured in

Hertz

147

Sound waves: Pressure is measured in

Decibels

148

Sound waves: Frequency that human ears can detect

20-20000 cycles per sec

149

Low frequency vs high frequency: More damaging to the organ of Corti

Low

150

Age-related bilateral symmetrical progressive sensorineural hearing loss

Presbycussis

151

Occupational hearing loss occurs after > 10 years of exposure to what dB

85 dB

152

Sound pressure that will cause pain and possible permanent damage

120 dB

153

Fluid in the scala media

Endolymph, high in potassium (PISO: Potassium, endo)

154

Fluid in the scala vestibuli

Perilymph, high in sodium (PISO: Sodium, peri)

155

Function of the pinna

Collect sound

156

2 muscles found in the middle ear

1) Stapedius
2) Tensor tympani

157

Smallest muscle in the body

Stapedius

158

Related bone: Stapedius

Stapes

159

Related bone: Tensor tympani

Malleus

160

CN: Stapedius

VII

161

CN: Tensor tympani

V3

162

Connection between outer and middle ear

Tympanic membrane

163

Function of middle ear

Impedance matching

164

Function of attenuation reflex/acoustic reflex (2)

1) Protects cochlea from loud/damaging sounds
2) Masks background noise

165

Function of basilar membrane

Frequency analyzer

166

2 components of the vestibular apparatus

1) Otolith organs
2) Semicircular canals

167

Otolith organs (2)

1) Utricle
2) Saccule

168

Semicircular canals (3)

1) Anterior
2) Posterior
3) Lateral

169

Otolith organs: Sensory organ

Macule (stataconia and hair cells)

170

Otolith organs: Detects changes in

Head orientation with respect to gravity

171

Otolith organs: For what movements

1) Linear acceleration
2) Angular acceleration (sometimes)

172

Semicircular canals: Sensory organ

Crista ampullaris

173

Semicircular canals: Detects changes in

Rate and direction of head

174

Semicircular canals: For what movements (2)

1) Angular acceleration
2) Predictive in maintenance of equilibrium

175

# of taste receptor cells

50-150

176

Taste receptor cells are replaced every

10 days

177

T/F Taste receptors are true neurons

F

178

Location of taste buds

1) Fungiform papillae (anterior)
2) Foliate papillae (lateral)
3) Circumvallate papillae (base)

179

Taste: Caused by various organic chemicals

Sweet

180

Taste: Caused by ionized salts, mainly Na

Salty

181

Taste: Caused by acids

Sour

182

Taste: Caused by MSG (proteinaceous meaty flavor)

Umami

183

Taste: Caused by organic substances

Bitter

184

Taste: More sensitive than other tastes

Bitter

185

# of olfactory receptors

60M

186

Olfactory receptor cells are replaced every

60 days

187

T/F Olfactory receptors are true neurons

T

188

Fibers for olfaction

Unmyelinated C fibers

189

Only sense that does not have a relay station in the thalamus

Olfactory

190

Located at the superior part of the nostril, innervated by CN V that detects noxious/painful stimuli

Olfactory membrane