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Flashcards in Cardio 2 Deck (34):
1

What BMI constitutes obesity?

> 30

2

What type of inflammatory condition is obesity?

Low grade

3

What are adipocytes?

Cells that make up adipose tissue

4

What do adipocytes secrete?

Cytokines, chemokines and hormone like factors

5

What does increased caloric intake result in?

Adipocyte hyperplasia

6

What happens to the hyperplasia response with age?

Blunted - adipocyte hypertrophy

7

What happens to adipocytes in advanced obesity?

Necrosis/apoptosis - inflammation and dysfunction

8

What are adipokines?

Pro and antinflammatory adipose derived cytokines

9

What are the roles of adipokines?

Food intake, energy homeostasis, angiogenesis

10

What are adipokines associated with?

Development of obesity related illnesses

11

What is leptin?

Pro inflammatory adipokine (16kDa)

12

What is the role of leptin?

Maintain hunger and satiety

13

What is the relationship of obesity and leptin?

Obesity is a leptin resistant/sensitive state and plasma leptin levels are high in obesity (5 fold increase)

14

When does leptin increase?

After myocardial infarction and heart failure

15

What does leptin do in obesity?

Activate sympathetic nervous system and increase adrenaline and noradrenaline

16

What does acute leptin exposure cause?

Increased NO, decreased renal sodium transporter expression

17

What does chronic leptin exposure cause?

Sodium retention, NO deficiency, renal oxidative stress, increase sodium transported expression

18

What is TNF-alpha?

Proinflammatory adipokine

19

What produced TNF-alpha?

Monocytes and macropahges

20

What does weight loss do to TNF-alpha levels?

Reduced

21

What does TNF-alpha inhibit?

Activation of the insulin receptor in muscle and adipose tissue

22

When do TNF-alpha levels increase?

Heart failure, acute and chronic ischemic injuries

23

What produces adiponectin?

Adipocytes

24

What happens to adiponectin in obesity and why?

Reduced - inhibited by pro inflammatory cytokines

25

What is adiponectin a predictor of?

Risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus

26

What cells does adiponectin protect?

Cardiovascular cell types

27

What does adiponectin overexpression cause?

Inhibition of atherosclerotic lesion formation

28

What does a deficiency in adiponectin cause?

Augmentation of atherosclerosis

29

When is obesity treatment successful?

If you lose 10% of initial body weight and don't regain more than 3kg in 2 years

30

What does leptin inhibit?

Neuropeptide Y (responsible for increasing food intake)

31

What happens when leptin crosses the blood brain barrier?

Binds to POMC neurons and decreases hunger

32

What does TNF-alpha lead to increased gene expression of?

Proinflammatory, procoagulant and proliferative proteins - leading to atherosclerosis

33

What does adiponectin impair?

Angiogenesis and insulin resistance

34

Which gender is more likely to keep weight off in obesity and severe obesity?

Women more likely to keep weight off in obesity and men more likely to keep weight off in severe obesity