Flashcards in Cardio 2 Deck (34):
What BMI constitutes obesity?
What type of inflammatory condition is obesity?
What are adipocytes?
Cells that make up adipose tissue
What do adipocytes secrete?
Cytokines, chemokines and hormone like factors
What does increased caloric intake result in?
What happens to the hyperplasia response with age?
Blunted - adipocyte hypertrophy
What happens to adipocytes in advanced obesity?
Necrosis/apoptosis - inflammation and dysfunction
What are adipokines?
Pro and antinflammatory adipose derived cytokines
What are the roles of adipokines?
Food intake, energy homeostasis, angiogenesis
What are adipokines associated with?
Development of obesity related illnesses
What is leptin?
Pro inflammatory adipokine (16kDa)
What is the role of leptin?
Maintain hunger and satiety
What is the relationship of obesity and leptin?
Obesity is a leptin resistant/sensitive state and plasma leptin levels are high in obesity (5 fold increase)
When does leptin increase?
After myocardial infarction and heart failure
What does leptin do in obesity?
Activate sympathetic nervous system and increase adrenaline and noradrenaline
What does acute leptin exposure cause?
Increased NO, decreased renal sodium transporter expression
What does chronic leptin exposure cause?
Sodium retention, NO deficiency, renal oxidative stress, increase sodium transported expression
What is TNF-alpha?
What produced TNF-alpha?
Monocytes and macropahges
What does weight loss do to TNF-alpha levels?
What does TNF-alpha inhibit?
Activation of the insulin receptor in muscle and adipose tissue
When do TNF-alpha levels increase?
Heart failure, acute and chronic ischemic injuries
What produces adiponectin?
What happens to adiponectin in obesity and why?
Reduced - inhibited by pro inflammatory cytokines
What is adiponectin a predictor of?
Risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus
What cells does adiponectin protect?
Cardiovascular cell types
What does adiponectin overexpression cause?
Inhibition of atherosclerotic lesion formation
What does a deficiency in adiponectin cause?
Augmentation of atherosclerosis
When is obesity treatment successful?
If you lose 10% of initial body weight and don't regain more than 3kg in 2 years
What does leptin inhibit?
Neuropeptide Y (responsible for increasing food intake)
What happens when leptin crosses the blood brain barrier?
Binds to POMC neurons and decreases hunger
What does TNF-alpha lead to increased gene expression of?
Proinflammatory, procoagulant and proliferative proteins - leading to atherosclerosis
What does adiponectin impair?
Angiogenesis and insulin resistance