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Flashcards in Cardio 5 Deck (14):
1

What are the aims of genomics?

Understanding genes and the underlying mechanisms that affect gene expression and allow us to predict whether patients or subjects will develop the disease or not

2

What are SNPs?

Single nucleotide polymorphisms - one base pair is changed

3

How many genetic markers and SNPs in a microarray?

1.8 million genetic markers including more the 906,600 SNPs

4

How many genes have been discovered to be involved with hypertension?

~20

5

What is copy number variation and what size is it?

Variation in the number of copies of larger segments via deletion of insertion of copies of the genome (10kb – 5mb)

6

What % of the human genome to copy number variations make up?

12

7

What are the features of IncRNAs?

100bp: chromatin modification - DNA folding

8

What are the features of microRNA?

-20-22bp -short
-Transcribed by genome, float around in cell nucleus and bind to mRNA (complementary sequence)
-Can degrade mRNA or block transcription and translation
-Present in lots of tissues and can circulate in blood

9

Why does RNA degrade quite quickly?

Don't want it hanging around to make excess proteins

10

What is the microarray process?

Collect samples, convert to cDNA, hybridize to microarray, can have up to half a million genes on microarray – red= higher expression and green= lesser expression

11

What things are overexpressed in the kidney cortex of hypertensives?

Renin mRNA, miR-181a

12

How do genes and environment contribute to essential hypertension?

30% genetics, 70% environment

13

What % of the genome does not code for proteins?

98%

14

What do red and green mean in microarray?

Red = high expression
Green = low expression