Flashcards in CardioPulmonary Deck (60):
The Sinus Node Artery gives blood where?
The Right Marginal Artery gives blood where?
Where does the Posterior Descending Artery give blood?
Inferior walls of both ventricles AND inferior portion of the interventricular septum (IVS)
The Circumflex artery gives blood where?
Left Atrium, Posterior & lateral walls of LV, Anterior & inferior walls of Left Ventricle!
Where does the Left Anterior Descending Artery go?
Anterior portion of the interventricular septum
What arteries come off the R coronary artery
Sinus Node artery, R marginal, and post. descending arteries
What arteries come off the L coronary artery?
Circumflex artery and L ant. descending artery.
What WBC protect the body against infections by ingesting bacteria and debris?
What WBC consists of 3 main types - protect against viral infections, detect and destroy some cancer cells, and develop into cells that produce antibodies?
(T-Lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and B-lymphocytes)
What WBC ingests dead or damaged cells and helps defend against infectious organisms?
What WBC kills parasites, destroys cancer cells, and are involved in allergic responses?
What WBC participates in allergic responses?
What is the volume of air that occupies the non-respiratory conducting airways?
Anatomic dead space volume (VD)
What is the maximal volume of air that can be (exhaled) after normal tidal exhalation?
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV), approximately 15% of total lung volume
What is the maximum volume of air exhaled in a specified period of time, usually the first, 2nd, or 3rd second of a forced vital capacity maneuver?
Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV)
What is the volume of air exhaled during a forced maximal expiration after a forced maximal inspiration?
Forced Vital Capacity (FVC)
What is the Volume of air in the lungs after normal exhalation
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC); FRC = RV + ERV; FRC is apporx. 40% of total lung volume
What is the maximal volume of air that can be inspired after a normal tidal exhalation?
Inspiratory Capacity (IC); IC = TV + IRV; IC is approx. 60% of total lung volume
What is the maximum volume of air that can be inspired after normal tidal volume inspiration.
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV). IRV is approx. 50% of total lung volume.
What is the volume of air expired in one minute?
Minute volume ventilation (VE). VE = TV x respiratory rate.
What is the maximum flow of air during the beginning of a forced expiratory maneuver?
Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF)
What is the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of a maximal expiration?
Residual Volume (RV); approx. 25% of TLV (may be higher with COPD)
What is the total volume of air inspired and expired with each breath during quiet breathing?
Tidal Volume (TV) ; only 10% of TLV!
What is the volume of air in the lungs after maximal inspiration?
Total Lung Capacity (TLC); the sum of all lung volumes. TLC + RV + VC or TLC = FRC + IC
What is the volume change that occurs between maximal inspiration and maximal expiration?
Vital Capacity (VC). VC = TV + IRV + ERV
What indicates acidosis?
pH less than 7.40
What indicates alkalosis?
pH greater than 7.40
What PaCO2 indicates adequate ventilation?
What PaCO2 indicates alveolar hyperventilation?
Less than 30 mmHg (not 35)
What PaCO2 indicates alveolar hypoventilation?
Greater than 50 mm Hg (not 45); also indicates ventilatory failure
What indicates Respiratory Acidosis?
pH less than 7.40; and PaCO2 greater than 45 mm Hg.
What indicates Respiratory Alkalosis?
pH greater than 7.40 and PaCO2 less than 35 mm Hg. (HCO3 less than 22 mEq/L indicates renal compensation)
What indicates retention of CO2 to compensate for metabolic alkalosis?
pH greater than 7.4 and PaCO2 greater than 45 mm Hg
What indicates elimination of CO2 to compensate for metabolic acidosis?
pH less than 7.4 PaCO2 less than 35 mm Hg
What indicates metabolic acidosis?
HCO3 less than 22 mEq/L and pH less than 7.4
What indicates renal compensation for respiratory alkalosis?
HCO3 less than 22 mEq/L and pH greater than 7.4
What indicates metabolic alkalosis?
HCO3 greater than 26 mEq/L and pH greater than 7.4
What indicates renal compensation for respiratory acidosis?
HCO3 greater than 26 mEq/L and pH less 7.4
What is normal O2 levels?
PaO2 80-100 mm Hg at sea level with SaO2 greater than 95%
What is mild hypoxemia?
PaO2: 60-79 mm Hg; SaO2 90-95% (if no shift in oxyhemoglobin curve)
What is moderate hypoxemia?
PaO2: 40-59 mm Hg; SaO2 60-90% (if no shift in oxyhemoglobin curve)
What is Severe hypoxemia?
PaO2: less than 40 mm Hg; SaO2 less than 60% (if no shirt in oxyhemoglobin curve)
What is the normal erythrocyte values for males?
4.3-5.6 x 10^12 L
What is a value for neutrophils in a differential blood count?
What is a value for lymphocytes in a differential blood count?
What is a value for monocytes in a differential blood count?
What is a value for eosinophils in a differential blood count?
What is a value for basophils in a differential blood count?
What is the value of "desirable" total cholesterol? Borderline? High?
Less than 200 mg/dL = desirable. Borderline is 200-239. High is 240 or greater
What is the optimal, near optimal, borderline, high, and very high levels for LDL cholesterol?
Less than 100 mg/dL is optimal; 100-129 is near optimal; 130-159 is borderline; 160-189 is high; and 190 or higher is VERY HIGH
What are the low and high values for HDL cholesterol?
Less than 40 mg/dL is low; 60 or greater is high
What are the desirable, borderline, high, and very high values for Triglycerides?
Less than 150 mg/dL is desirable. 150-199 is borderline. 200-499 is high. And 500 or greater is Very High.
What is an S3 heart sound?
Vibrations of the distended ventricle walls due to passive flow of blood from the atria during the rapid filling phase of diastole. Normal is healthy young children, but abnormal in adults.
What is an S4 heart sound?
Pathological sound of vibration of the ventricular wall with ventricular filling and atrial contraction.
What is an "atrial gallop?"
S4 heart sound - Pathological sound of vibration of the ventricular wall with ventricular filling and atrial contraction.
With what conditions can you see S4 heart sounds? (4)
HTN, Stenosis, Hypertensive heart disease, MI
What is a "ventricular gallop?"
S3 heart sound - Vibrations of the distended ventricle walls due to passive flow of blood from the atria during the rapid filling phase of diastole.
What condition is an S3 heart sound associated with?
What is a murmur?
Vibrations of longer duration tha the heart sounds and are often due to disruption of blood flow past a stenotic or regurgitant valve - sounds are variably described as soft, blowing, or swishing.