Flashcards in Cardiovascular Pharmacology Deck (40):
What do Alpha Adrenergic Antagonist Agents do?
Reduce peripheral vascular tone by blocking alpha-1 adrenergic receptors; caused dilation of arterioles and decreases BP.
What are examples of Alpha Adrenergic Antagonist Agents?
Cardura (Doxaosin), Minipress (prazosin), and Hytrin (terazosin)
End in -osin
What is the difference between beta blockers and calcium channel blockers?
A calcium channel block is antihypertensive, antianginal, AND antidysrhythmic! A beta blocker is just antihypertensive and antianginal??????? Maybe they're the same?
What do Angiotension-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor Agents do?
Decrease BP and afterload by suppressing the enzyme that converts Angiotensin I to II. (There is an AE of cough, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, and hypotension)
What are examples of ACE Inhibitors?
Capoten (captorpril), Vasotec (enalapril) PPrinivil (lisinopril), Altace (ramipril)
End in -pril
What do Angiotension II Receptor Antagonist Agents do?
Block angiotensin II receptors which limit vasoconstriction and stimulation of vascular tissue
What are examples of Angiotensin II receptor antagonist agents?
Cozaar (losartan), Atacand (candersartan), Diovan (valsartan)
End in -sartan
What is the difference between ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor agents?
Not much, just the mechanism. ACEIs can cause a cough, but are generally cheaper than ARAAs
What are the four classes of Antiarrhythmic agents?
Class I - Sodium channel blockers (control cardiac excitation and conduction)
Class II - Beta Blockers (inhibit sympathetic activity by blocking beta-adrenergic receptors)
Class III - prolong repolarization by inhibiting both potassium and sodium channels and are often considered the MOST EFFECTIVE ANTIARRHYTHMIC AGENT
Class IV - Calcium Channel Blockers (depress depolarization and slow conduction through the AV node)
How do anticoagulant agents work?
Inhibit platelet aggregation and thrombus formation - slows down the clotting process. Used after antithombic (antiplatelet) agents have failed or after they can no longer be used.
What are examples of Anticoagulant agents?
Heparin, Coumadin (warfarin), and Lovenox (enoxaparin)
What do Antihyperlipidemia agents do?
Inhibit enzyme action in cholesterol synthesis, break down LDL, decrease triglycerides, and increase HDL.
This is just one of 5 categories (the others are bile acid sequestrants, nicotonic acid, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, and fibric acid derivatives)
What are examples of Antihyperlipidemia agents?
Lipitor (atorvastatin), Zocor (simvastatin), Tricr fenobibrate)
End in -statin. Or -or
What do antithrombotic (antiplatelet) agents do?
Inhibit platelet aggregation and clot formation (prevents platelets from clumping). -Used to prevent to avoid going on anticoagulant agents?
Examples of Antithrombic (antiplatelet) agents?
Bayer (aspirin), Plavix (clopidogrel), Persantine (dipyridamole).
Anticoagulants vs Antiplatelets?
Antiplatelets used first to prevent a clot. Anticoags used to prevent already formed clot from getting worse or becoming an embolism.
What do beta blockers do?
Decrease the myocardial demand by decreasing heart rate and contractility by blocking beta-adrenergic receptors. Used for HTN, angina, arrhythmias, HS, migraines, essential tremor. Has AE of BRADYCARDIA, cardiac arrhythmias, fatigue, depression, dizziness, weakness, blurred vision. Inc. risk of orthostatic hypotension
What do calcium channel blockers do?
Decrease the entry of calcium into the vascular smooth muscle cells, resulting in DIMINISHED MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION, Vasodilation, decreased O2 demand of the heart
Used for HTN, Angina PECTORIS, Arrhythymias, CHF. Has AEs of Dizziness, headache, hypotension, peripheral edema. No AE of BRADYCARDIA!
Exclusive uses for beta blockers vs calcium channel blockers, per Socrebuilders
BB: Migraines and essential tremor
CCB: CONGESTIVE HF. (BB can be used for HF)
What are examples of beta blockers?
Tenormin (atenolol), Lopressor (metprolol), Inderal (propanolol)
End in -olol
What are examples of Calcium Channel Blockers?
Norvasc (amlodipine), Procardia (nifedipine), Calan (verapamil), CARDIZEM (DILTIAZEM).
What are Diuretic Agents; how do they work?
Increase the excretion of sodium and urine - causes reduction in plasma volume which decreases blood pressure. Different classifications include: loop, thiazide, and potassium sparing agents. Uses for edema, HTN, and glaucoma?! May cause electrolye imbalance, polyuria (over-production of urine; more than 2.5-3L in 24 hrs), and increased LDL!
What are examples of diuretic agents?
Thiazide: Diuril (ChloroTHAZIDE)
**Loop: LASIX (Furosemide)**
Potassium-sparing: Dyrenium (triamterene).
What are Nitrate Agents? What do they do?
Decrease ischemia through smooth muscle relaxation and dilation of peripheral vessels. Used for Angia pectoris
Examples of nitrate agents?
Nitrostat (NITROGLYCERIN), Isodril (isosorbate dinitrate), Amyl nitrate solution for inhalation
What are Positive Inotropic Agents?
Increase the force and velocity of myocardial contraction, slow the HR, decrease conduction velocity through AV node, decrease degree of activation of SNS. Used for HF and A-FIB!!
Example of Positive Inotropic Agent?
What are Thrombolytic Agents?
Facilitate clot dissolution through conversion of plasminogen to plasmin (plasmin breaks down clots and allows occluded vessels to reopen to maintain blood flow). They LYSIS the CLOT!
Used for acute MI, PE, ischemic stroke, arterial of venous thrombosis. AE: hemorrhage, allergic reaction, cardiac arrhythmia.
In PT, avoid situations that can cause trauma due to altered clotting activity.
Examples of Thrombolytic agents?
Linlytic (urokinase), Activase (alterplase)
End in -ase
What are Antihistamine agents?
Block effects of histamine; decrease nasal congestion, mucosal irritation, etc.
Examples of antihistamines?
Benadryl (diphenhydramine), Allegra *fexofenadine), Zyrtec (cetirizine HCL), and Claratin (loratadine).
What are anti-inflammatory agents?
Inhaled corticosteroids, leukotriene modifiers, and mast-cell stabilizers that help prevent inflammatory-medicated bronchoconstriction by inhibiting production of inflammatory cells, suppressing release of inflammatory mediators (cytokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes), and reversing capillary permeability. In turn, REDUCING AIRWAY EDEMA
Used for bronchospasm and ASTHMA!
What are examples of anti-inflammatory agents?
Cortiosteriod: Qvar (beclomethasone dipropionate), Pulmicort (buesonide), AeroBid (flunisolide),
Leukotriene modifer: Zylfo (zileuton),
Mast-cell stabilizer: Nasalcrom (cromolyn sodium)
What are Bronchodilator agents?
Relieve bronchospasm by stimulating the receptors that cause bronchial smooth muscle relaxation or by blocking the receptors that trigger bronchoconstriction
Primary classifications: anticholinergic, sympathomimetics, and xanthine derivatives.
Use with SOB related to asthma and COPD. Also use with bronchospasm and wheezing.
What are examples of Bronchodilator agents?
Anticholinergic: ATROVENT(Ipratropium), Spiriva (Tiotropium)
Sympathomimetrics: Ventolin (ALBUTEROL), Primatene mist (EPINEPHRINE), Severent (SALMETEROL)
Xanthine Derivative: Theo-Dur (Theophylline), Aminophylline.
What are Expectorant Agents?
Increase respiratory secretions which help loosen mucus. Improves the efficiency of the cough reflex and of ciliary action in removing accumulated secretions by reducing the viscocity of secretions and increasing sputum volume
What are examples of Expectorant Agents?
MUCINEX (Guaifenesin) and Terpin Hydrate
What are Mucolytic Agents?
Decrease the viscosity of mucus secretions by altering their composition and consistency, making them easier the expectorate. They are administered by a nebulizer. For pneumonia, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and CF.
What are examples of Mucolytic agents?
Pulmozyme (dornase alpha), MUCOSIL or Mucomyst (Acetylcystine)