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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (20)
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1

left axis vs right axis deviation

L: upright QRS lea I, downward aVF
R: downward QRS lead I, upright aVF

2

LBBB vs RBBB

LBBB: wide QRS with no R wave V1, wide, tall R wave I, V5, V6
RBBB: wide QRS, RSR' V1, Wide S wave I, V5, V6

3

R vs L atrial enlargement

R (P pulmonale): P wave lead II >2.5
L (P mitrale): P wave lead II >120msec

4

Incr JVP with inspiration

Kussmaul sign: RV infarct, ccardiac tamponade, tricuspid regurg, constrictive pericarditis

5

Holosystolic murmur that radiates to axilla

mitral regurg

6

Midsystolic or late systolic murmur with preceding click

mitral valve prolapse

7

early decrescendo diastolic murmur

aortic regurg

8

mid to late, low-pitched diastolic murmur

mitral stenosis

9

S3 vs S4 gallop

S3: dilated cardiomyopathy, mitral valve disease, can be normal
S4: hypertension, diastolic dysfxn, aortic stenosis

10

L sided vs R sided HF

L: dyspnea (basilar rales, pleural effusion, pulm edema, orthopnea)
R: fluid retention (JVD, hepatojug reflex, periph edema, hepatomegaly)

11

Tx pulm congestion (LMNOP)

Lasix
Morphine
Nitrates
O2
Position

12

S4 gallop, pulm cong, normal heart size, LVH, normal EF; dx and tx

nonsystolic heart dysfxn
Tx: diuretics, bbl/ACEi/ARB/CCB for rate/BP ctrl
Digoxin NOT helpful

13

ECG shows nonspecific ST-T changes, low-voltage QRS, LBBB: dx and tx

dilated cardiomyopathy
Tx: ACEi/ARB/bbl
Avoid CCB
ICD if EF

14

Defn dyslipidemia, recommended screening

LDL >130 or HDL 35y, q5y
>20 with risk

15

Stage I vs Stage II HTN and tx

Stage I: 140-159/90-99
Thiazide (or ACEi, ARB, bbl, CCB)
Stage II: >160/>100
Two drug combo (thiazide + ACEI, ARB, Bbl or ccb)

16

Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis: dx, workup, tx

Conn's syndrome
Incr aldost, decr renin
Tx surgical removal

17

hypertensive urgency vs emergency, tx

Urgency: incr BP and sx, no end organ failure; tx oral meds (bbl, clonidine, ACEI), lower over 2448h
Emergench: signs end organ damage (AKI, papilledema, ECG change)
Tx IV meds (labetalol, nitroprusside, nicardipine), lower 25% over 2 hrs

18

hypotension, distant heart sounds, JVD: dx and tx

Beck triad, cardiac tamponade
Tx fluids, emergent pericardiocentesis

19

indications for tx of aortic aneurysm

abdominal: >5.5cm
Thoracic: >6cm

20

tearing/ripping pain of ant chest or back, asymmetric pulses or BPs, neuro deficit: dx, workup, tx

aortic dissection
CT angio
Ascending: emergent surgery
descending: can manage medically