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Flashcards in Endocrinology Deck (24)
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1

anti-GAD antibodies

Type 1 DM

2

Treatment goals for Type 2 DM, preventative measurements

glucose 80-120mg.dl
HbA1c

3

For which patients is metformin contraindicated? Important side effect

Renal insufficiency, hepatic insufficiency, heart failure
Lactic acidosis

4

Glipizide, glyburide, Glimepiride: class, mechanism, side effects

Sulfonylureas
Incr endogenous insulin secr
Hypoglycemia

5

Rosaglitazone, pioglitazone: class, mechanism, side effects

Thiazolidinediones

6

Treatment of hyperthyroid

Methimazole, propylthiouracil

7

Treatment of thyroid storm

IV propanolol, propylthiouracil, corticosteroids
High dose postassium iodide

8

Delayed relaxation of DTRs

Assoc with hashimotos

9

Treatment myxedema coma

IV levothyroxine, IV hydrocortisone

10

MEN1 vs MEN2A vs MEN2B

MEN1: pancreatic neuroendocrine, pituitary adenoma, parathyroid hyperplasia
MEN2A: Pheo, medullary thyroid ca, parathyroid hyperplasia
MEN2B: Pheo, medullary thyroid ca, mucosal neuroma

11

criteria for osteoporosis; common fxs

BMD

12

"mosaic" lamellar bone pattern on xray; assoc lab abnormality

Paget's
incr alk phos, normal ca, phos

13

secondary vs tertiary hyperparathyroid

secondary: physiologic incr PTH after renal insufficiency, Ca def, Vit D def
tertiary: dialysis pts, long-standing secondary hyperplasia leads to parathyroid hyperlasia, autonomous PTH secr

14

hypercalcemia: sx and treatment

Sx: stones, bones, moans, groans, psychiatric overtones
Tx: IV fluids, loop diuretics, IV bisphosphonates

15

Ectopic PTHrP: assoc cancers, PTH/Ca/PO4

Breast, lung
Decr PTH, Incr Ca, Decr PO4

16

primary hyperparathyroidism: Assoc labs, workup, medical treatment

hypercalcemia, hypophosphate, hypercalciuria
DEXA, 99mTC sestamibi scan, thyroid ultrasound
cancalcet: calcimimetic

17

cushing syndrome vs cushing disease

syndrome: too much cortisol
disease: ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma

18

Cushing syndrome: screening tests, pituitary vs adrenal

24hr free urine cortisol
2 midnight salivary cortisol
1mg dexamethasone suppression test

ACTH dep vs indep:
AM cortisol and ACTH

19

Tx + Dx of acromegaly

Dx: IGF1 incr, confirm with glucose suppression test
Tx: octreotide (somatostatin analog)
pegvisomant (GH receptor antagonist)

20

Dx + tx hyperprolactinemia

Prolactin >200
Tx: dopamine agonist (cabergoline, bromocriptine)

21

dx + tx central vs nephrogenic di

Dx: DDAVP admin:
central: decr UOP, incr urine osm
nephrogenic: no effect
Tx:
Central: DDAVP
nephrogenic: salt restriction, water intake; thiazide diuretics

22

dx, tx SIADH

Dx: urine osm >50-100 mosm/kg, serum hypoosm; urinary sodium > 20meq/L
Tx: restrict fluid, hypertonic saline if

23

Dx of adrenal insufficiency

Hyponatremia and eosinophilia
Hyperkalemia in primary AI only
Confirm with 8Am cortisol (18ug/dl)

24

hyperaldosteronism: dx and tx

Dx: hypokalemia, mind hypernatremia, alkalosis, hypomagnesemia, incr aldost/plasma renin activity
Tx: surgical or spironolactone