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Flashcards in cardiovascular Deck (21):
0

What is atherosclerosis?

Disease of the inside of the lumen (intima)
Results in formation of lesions or plaques
It's is linked to the increased lipid concentration in blood
Can lead to hypertension, diabetes, and high cholesterol

1

What is endogenous cholesterol?

Synthesised in the LIVER,
Esterified and extruded

2

What us exogenous cholesterol?

Comes from food

3

What are the 3 types of lipid lowering drugs?

Statins
Fibrates
Niacin

4

What do statins do?

Prevent formation of cholesterol
Inhibit enzym

5

What do fibrates do?

Activate transcription factor which controls lipid metabolism
Reduces concentration of triglycerides

6

What does niacin do?

Binds to GPCRs
Inhibits lipolysis
Reduces release of fatty acids
Lowers LDL concentration in blood.

7

What are bile acid binding resins?

Binds bile
Increases plasma cholesterol concentration

8

What does ezetimibe do?

Inhibits cholesterol absorption in the small intestine

9

Aspirin

An antiplatelet
Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease
Can cause GI BLEEDING and brain heammorage
Cox1 inhibitor (cox1 activated in platelet formation)

10

Clopidognel

Blocks GPCRs
Decreases amount of cAMP
Can cause heammorage
ADP receptor antagonist (ADP is released with platelets - vasoconstriction)

11

Dipyridamole

Activates phosphodiesteRase inhibitors (phosphodiesteRase brakes down cAMP)
IncreAses cAMP levels (opposite effect to clopidognel)
Causes vasodilation and inhibits platelet activation and aggregation

12

What do anticoagulants do?

Interact with factor Xa
Direct thrombin inhibitors

13

What are heparins?

Heterogenous family of mucopolysaccharides
Binds to antithrombins and enhances its actions (stopping thrombin formation)
Can inhibit thrombin and factor Xa
Thrombin contributes to blood clots

14

What does rivaroxaban do?

Factor Xa inhibitor (Xa aids thrombin formation)
Long lasting action
No effect on thrombin or platelets
Can prevent pulmonary embolisms

15

What does warfarin do?

Used for prevention and treatment of stroke and myocardial infarction
Binds to albumin in plasma
Tetratogenic
Competes with vitamin K
Thins blood
Prevents clotting

16

What is cardiac hypertrophy?

Increase in mass of heart size becomes dilated and muscle thickens

17

What is systolic failure?

Heart does not contract normally

18

What is diastolic failure?

Heart chambers unable to fill properly and relax normally

19

Treatments of heart failure drugs:

ACE inhibitors: captopril, enalopril, lisinopril
Beta blockers; carvedilol, bisoprolol, metoprolol
Diuretics

20

ABCIXIMAB
Tirofiban
Eptifibatide

ABCIXIMAB (GPIIb/IIIa receptor antagonist)
Eptifibatide (GPIIb/IIIa receptor antagonist)
Tirofiban (GPIIb/IIIa receptor antagonist)

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