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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Disease Deck (133)
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1

Truncus arteriosus

Embryonic structure that gives rise to ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk

2

Bulbus cordis

Embryonic structure that gives rise to outflow tract of R and L ventricles

3

Primitive atrium and primitive ventricle

Give rise to trabeculated portions of atria and ventricles

4

Primitive pulmonary vein

Gives rise to smooth part of left atrium

5

Left and right horns of sinus venosus

Left gives rise to coronary sinus
Right gives rise to smooth part of right atrium

6

Embryonic structures that give rise to SVC

Right common cardinal vein and right anterior cardinal vein

7

Cardiac looping

Starts at week 4 and establishes the right-left polarity.

8

Dextrocardia

Seen in Kartagener as left-right dynein is required for proper cardiac looping

9

Atrial septation

1. Septum primum grows
2. Foramen secundum forms in septum primum
3. Septum secundum forms; foramen secundum maintains R to L shunt
4. Septum secundum expands leaving just small opening, the foramen ovale
5. Septum primum and secundum fuse to form atrial septum
6. Increased LA pressure closes foramen ovale after birth

10

Ventricular septation

1. Muscular ventricular septum forms with interventricular foramen as an opening
2. Formation of membranous interventricular septum
3. Endocardial cushions grow to separate atria from ventricles. Contribute to atrial septation as well as the membranous portion of the interventricular septum

11

Fetal erythropoiesis

Yolk sac from week 3-8
Liver from 6 weeks to birth
Spleen from 10-28 weeks
Bone marrow from 18 weeks to adult

12

Fetal hemoglobin

Higher O2 affinity due to less 2,3 BPG binding

13

Fetal circulation: umbilical vein and artery

Umbilical vein brings blood from placenta to fetus. High O2 saturation

Umbilical arteries bring blood from fetus back to placenta. Low O2 saturation

14

Ductus venosus

Shunts blood entering the fetus through the umbilical vein to the IVC to bypass hepatic circulation

15

Foramen ovale

Shunts oxygenated blood entering the RA from the IVC to LA to bypass the pulmonary circulation

16

Ductus arteriosus

Shunts deoxygenated blood entering the RA and then RV from the SVC from the pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. Occurs due to high fetal pumonary artery resistance which is due to the low O2 tension.

17

Changes in circulation at birth

Infant takes a breath which causes decreased resistance in the pulmonary vasculature, allowing blood to flow through and increasing LA pressure relative to RA pressure. This causes foramen ovale to close.

Increase in O2 and decrease in PG related to placental separation results in closure of the ductus arteriosus

18

Adult derivative of allantois/urachus

median umbilical ligament

19

Adult derivative of ductus arteriosus

ligamentum arteriosum

20

Adult derivative of ductus venosus

Ligamentum venosum

21

Adult derivative of foramen ovale

Fossa ovalis

22

Adult derivative of notochord

Nucleus pulposus

23

Adult derivative of umbilical arteries

medial umbilical ligaments

24

adult derivative of umbilical vein

ligamentum teres which is within the falciform ligament

25

Blood supply to SA and AV nodes

Right coronary artery. Block can cause bradycardia or heart block

26

Right vs left dominant circulation

Right dominant seen in 85%. PDA arises from the RCA.

Left dominant seen in 8%. PDA arises from LCX

Codominant circulation in 7%. PDA arises from both RCA and LCX

27

Left atrium anatomy

Most posterior portion of the heart. Enlargement can cause dysphagia or hoarseness

28

Mean arterial pressure ormula

MAP=CO x TPR

MAP=2/3 diastolic pressure + 1/3 systolic pressure

29

Stroke volume formula

SV = EDV - ESV

30

Cardiac output during exercise

During early stages, CO maintained by increased HR and increased SV. During late stages, maintained by increased HR only as SV plateaus, Diastole preferentially shortened when HR increases resulting in decreased filling time and decreased CO