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Flashcards in MSK Deck (79)
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1

Valgus/varus stress test

Valgus tests MCL (push laterally)
Varus tests LFL (push medially)

2

McMurray test

Popping on external rotation: medial meniscus tear
Popping on internal rotation: lateral meniscus tear

3

Unhappy triad

Occurs due to lateral force applied to planted leg. Classicaly damages ACL, MCL, and medial meniscus

4

Prepatellar bursitis

Repeted trauma or pressure from extensive kneeling

5

Baker cyst

Popliteal fluid related to chronic joint disease

6

Muscles of the rotator cuff

Supraspinatus: abducts arm initially, assessed by empty can test; suprascapular nerve

Infraspinatus: laterall forates the arm; suprascapular nerve

Teres minor: adducts and laterally rotates arm; axillary nerve

Subscapularis: medially roates and adducts; upper and low subscapular nerve

7

Golfer's elbow

Medial epicondylitis. Repetitive flexion

8

Tennis elbo

Lateral epicondylitis. Repetic extension

9

Bones of wrist

Scared lovers try positions that they can't handle

Scaphoid
Lunate
Triquetrum
Pisiform
Trapezium
Trapezoid
Capitate
Hamate

10

Fractures of wrist

Scaphoid most commonly fractured. Palpated in anatomic snuff box. Prone to avascular necrosis.

Hook of hamate fractured on fall on an outstretched hand. Can cause ulnar nerve injury

11

Axillary nerve damage

Occurs due to fractured surgical neck of humerus. Presents with loss of arm abductaion and loss of sensation over deltoid and lateral arm

12

Musculocutaneous nerve damage

Occurs due to upper trunk compreesion. Presents with loss of forearm flexion and supination, loss of sensation over lateral forearm

13

Radial nerve damage

Occurs due to midshaft fracture of humerus or compression of axilla. Presents with wrist drop, decreased grip strength, loss of sensation over posterior arm/forearm and dorsal hand

14

Median nerve damage

Occurs due to supracondylar fracture of humerus, carpal tunnel syndrome, wrist laceration. Presents with loss of wrist and lateral finger flexion, loss of opposition of thumb, inability to pronate. Loss of sensation over thenar eminence, lateral 3.5 fingers

15

Ulnar nerve damage

Occurs due to fracture of the medial epicondyle, fractured hook of hamate. Presents with ulnar claw, radial deviation of wrist, loss of wrist flexion and flexion of medial fingers, loss of ab and adduction of fingers, loss of sensation over medial fingers and hypothenar eminence

16

Recurrent branch of median nerve damage

Occurs due to superficial laceration of palm. Loss of thenar muscles - opposition, abduction, flexion of thumb. No loss of sensation.

17

Upper trunk of brachial plexus

Derived from C5, C6. Damaged in Erb palsy (waiter's tip). Seen in infants due to lateral traction on neck during delivery. Deficits in axillary nerve (deltoid), suprascapular nerve (supraspinatus and infraspinatus) and musculocutanous nerve (biceps)

18

Lower trunk of brachial plexus

Derived from C8, T1. Damaged in Klumpke palsy. Seen in infants due to upward force on arm during delivery. Deficits in median and ulnar nerves resulting in total claw hand

19

Long thoracic nerve

Derived from C5 through C7. Presents with winged scapula due to loss of function in serratus anterior. Damaged with axillary node dissection after mastectomy and stab wounds.

20

Thoracic outlet syndrome

Seen in pancoast tumor. Causes compression of lower trunk and subclavian vessels. Presents with atrophy of intrinsic hand muscles and total claw hand plus with ischemia, pain, edema

21

Presentation of proximal and distal medial and ulnar nerve damage

Distal ulnar: can't extend third and fourth fingers; remain clawed at rest or when extending fingers
Proximal ulnar nerve: ok gesture when trying to make a fist - can't flex fourth and fifith fingers

Distal median nerve: cant extend first and second fingers at rest
Proximal median nerve: can't flex first and second fingers when making a fist

22

Functions of dorsal and palmar interossei

DAB and PAD: dorsals abduct, palmars adduct

23

Obturator nerve

L2-L4. Damaged in pelvic surgery. Presents with decreased medial thigh sensation and decreased adduction

24

Femoral nerve

L2-L4. Damaged in pelvic fracture. Presents with decreased thigh flexion and leg extension.

25

Common peroneal nerve

L4-S2. Damaged with trauma to lateral leg, fibular neck fracture. Presents with foot drop - inverted and plantarflexed foot at rest. Loss of sensation on dorsum of foot

26

Tibial nerve

L4-S3. Damaged in knee trauma, Baker cyst, tarsal tunnel syndrome. Presents with inability to curl toes, everted foot, loss of sensation on sole of foot

27

Superior gluteal nerve

L4-S1. Damaged during IM infection to upper medial gluteus. Innervates gluteus minimus and medius. Presents with trendelenburg sign 0 pelvis tilts to side contralaterla to lesion

28

Inferior gluteal nerve

L5-S2. Damaged due to posterior hip dislocation. Innervates gluteus maximus. Presents with trouble clmbing stairs and standing up. Loss of hip extension.

29

Peroneal vs tibial nverve

Peroneal everts and dorsiflex
Tibial inverts and plantarflexes

30

Sciatic nerve

L4-S3. Innervates posterior thigh