Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (33)
Direct inguinal hernia
Protrudes through abdominal wall through Hasselbach's triangle, medial to inferior epigastric vessels, through superficial ring. More common in older men.
Indirect inguinal hernia
Protrudes through abdominal wall lateral to inferior epigastric vessels (lateral to triangle) and goes through both superficial and deep rings and into the scrotum. Occurs due to failure of the processus vaginalis to close.
Made up of rectus abdominus medially, inguinal ligament inferolaterally, and inferior epigastric vessels superolaterally
Functions of musculocutaneous nerve
Innervates biceps. Sensation to lateral forearm.
Innervation for erection
Parasympathetics of S2-S4, which also innervates anal and penile sensation.
Compression of right recurrent laryngeal nerve by enlarged left atrium.
Relationship between internal jugular vein and common carotid artery
IJV lateral to common carotid
Cause of congenital diaphragmatic hernia
Failure of pleuroperitoneal canal to close completely
Right dominant circulation
RCA gives off posterior descending artery
Nerve damaged in fracture of surgical neck of humerus
Blood supply to pancreas
Branches of SMA and gastroduodenal artery
Layers of epidermis (bottom to top with function)
Stratum basalis: generates keratinocytes, rapidly divides, where melanocytes live
Stratum spinosum: desmosomes, langerhans immune cells
Stratum granulosum: keratohyalin granules, releases lamellar bodies to form the waterproof lipid layer of skin
Stratum lucidum: clear layer of dead keratinocytes without nuclei
Stratum corneum: layers of flat dead keratinocytes that slough
Nerves associated with cribriform plate
Nerve and vessel associated with optic canal
CNII, opthalmic artery
Nerves and vessels associated with superior orbital fissure
CNIII, IV, V1, VI, superior opthalmic veins
Nerve associated with foramen rotundum
Nerve associated with foramen ovale
Vessels associated with foramen spinosum
Middle meningeal artery and vein
Nerves associated with internal auditory meatus
VII and VIII
Nerves associated with jugular foramen
IX, X, XI
Nervs associated with hypoglossal canal
Nerves associated with foramen magnum
Nerves associated with stylomastoid foramen
At base of broad ligaments. Contain uterine arteries and veins.
Meissner's vs pacini corpuscles
Meissners: light touch
Pacini: vibration, course touch, pressure
Right lymphatic duct
Drains right chest, back, arm, neck, head. Empties into angle between internal jugular and subclavian veins.
Neurofibromatosis type 2
Classically presents with bilateral acoustic neuromas. Optic gliomas and juvenile cataracts also classic findings. Caused by mutation of tumor suppressor gene merlin on chromosome 22.
Neurologic findings of vitamin B12 deficiency
Degeneration of neurons and myelin in dorsal columns, lateral corticospinal tract, and spinocerebellar tracts lead to dementia-like symptoms and ataxia
Result of straddle injury
Can cause rupture of urethra below urogenital diaphragm. Causes urine to flow into scrotum and perineal region.