Flashcards in Cardiovascular System Deck (39):
What is an artery?
vessel that carries blood away from the heart
What is a vein?
vessel that carries blood to the heart.
Where is the heart located?
dorsally and slightly to the left
3 layers of pericardium
1. outer fibrous layer: prevents over stretching, protection, anchors to surrounding tissues.
2. inner serous layer-pericardial cavity
3. visceral pericardium-epicardium
What is a cardiac tapenade?
What do desmosomes do?
How does calcium function in heart muscle?
extracellular calcium ions are needed for contraction
What are the PQRST waves?
p is the contraction of the atria, qrs is contraction of the ventricles. t is ventricles relaxing
what do the large mitochondria indicate about how the heart produces energy and it's ability to become fatigued?
the heart doesn't stop and needs a steady supply of energy to operate
What is the fibrous skeleton of the heart?
Parietal pericardium- prevents overstretching, protection, anchors to surrounding tissue
What are the 4 grooves or sulci are found in the heart?
atrioventricular, posterior interventricular, anterior interventricular,
chordae tenineae attach muscles to the mitral and bicuspid valves to prevent prolapse
What are anastomoses?
provide collateral circulation
reduced blood flow
reduced oxygen supply
death of an area of tissue
What is the cardiac cycle?
one complete heart beat (systole, diastole)
What are the heart sounds?
lubb-closing of the av valves during systole
dupp-opening of the av valves
A heart murmur signals problems with what part of the heart?
mitral stenosis of the mitral valve
What is an eptopic pace maker?
causes an extra heart beat
pacemaker of the ehart
What is bradycardia?
BPM of less than 60
what is tachycardia?
BPM of more than 100
What part of the brain relates heart rate?
Fetal structures in adults?
Ductus venosus= coronary sinus
ductus arteriosus=ligamentum arteriosum
foramen ovale=fossa ovalis
What do these fetal structures bypass?
the liver and lungs
widening of blood vessels
narrowing of blood vessels
form capillaries and provide to external cells of the vessel
arterioles vs areries?
arterioles have thinner layers than arteries. shunt blood from arteries to veins
What is the structure of a capillary wall?
only have 1 layer.
have pores for filtration
spaces between cells, basement membrane absent.
blood brain barrier, etc
What are venues?
join capillaries and veins