Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardiovascular System Deck (39):
1

What is an artery?

vessel that carries blood away from the heart

2

What is a vein?

vessel that carries blood to the heart.

3

Where is the heart located?

dorsally and slightly to the left

4

3 layers of pericardium

1. outer fibrous layer: prevents over stretching, protection, anchors to surrounding tissues.
2. inner serous layer-pericardial cavity
3. visceral pericardium-epicardium

5

What is a cardiac tapenade?

heart plug

6

What do desmosomes do?

spot welds.

7

How does calcium function in heart muscle?

extracellular calcium ions are needed for contraction

8

What are the PQRST waves?

p is the contraction of the atria, qrs is contraction of the ventricles. t is ventricles relaxing

9

what do the large mitochondria indicate about how the heart produces energy and it's ability to become fatigued?

the heart doesn't stop and needs a steady supply of energy to operate

10

What is the fibrous skeleton of the heart?

Parietal pericardium- prevents overstretching, protection, anchors to surrounding tissue

11

What are the 4 grooves or sulci are found in the heart?

atrioventricular, posterior interventricular, anterior interventricular,

12

Pappillary muscles?

chordae tenineae attach muscles to the mitral and bicuspid valves to prevent prolapse

13

Trabeculae carnae

meatlike meshwork

14

What are anastomoses?

provide collateral circulation

15

Ischemia

reduced blood flow

16

hypoxia

reduced oxygen supply

17

angia pectoralis

strangled chest

18

myocardial infarction

death of an area of tissue

19

What is the cardiac cycle?

one complete heart beat (systole, diastole)

20

What are the heart sounds?

lubb-closing of the av valves during systole
dupp-opening of the av valves

21

A heart murmur signals problems with what part of the heart?

mitral stenosis of the mitral valve

22

What is an eptopic pace maker?

causes an extra heart beat

23

SA node

pacemaker of the ehart

24

What is bradycardia?

BPM of less than 60

25

what is tachycardia?

BPM of more than 100

26

What part of the brain relates heart rate?

medulla oblongata

27

Fetal structures in adults?

Ductus venosus= coronary sinus
ductus arteriosus=ligamentum arteriosum
foramen ovale=fossa ovalis

28

What do these fetal structures bypass?

the liver and lungs

29

vasodilation?

widening of blood vessels

30

vasoconstriction

narrowing of blood vessels

31

vasa vasorum

form capillaries and provide to external cells of the vessel

32

arterioles vs areries?

arterioles have thinner layers than arteries. shunt blood from arteries to veins

33

What is the structure of a capillary wall?

only have 1 layer.

34

continuous

uninterrupted

35

fenestrated capillaries

have pores for filtration

36

sinusoids

spaces between cells, basement membrane absent.

37

tight junctions

blood brain barrier, etc

38

What are venues?

join capillaries and veins

39

What is the structure of a vein?

same 3 layers, thinner tunica media, and contains valves. Act as blood reservoirs.