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Flashcards in Respiratory system Deck (40):
1

Respiration?

Entire process of exchanging gasses between the atmosphere and the body cells.

2

external respiration?

exchanging of gasses between blood and air in the lungs

3

internal respiration?

exchanging of gasses between blood and body cells

4

ventilation?

use of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide by cells

5

Why do we need Oxygen?

it is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain

6

What are the parts of the upper respiratory tract?

nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, pharynx

7

what are the parts of the lower respiratory tract?

larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, lungs

8

what type of cartilage makes the nose?

elastic

9

What bones form the nasal cavity?

nasal, frontal, maxillary

10

Nasopharynx?

respiration. pseudostratisfied ciliated columnar epithelium

11

Oropharynx?

digestion. nonkeratinized stratisfied squamous epithelium

12

laryngopharynx?

respiration. same as oropharynx

13

What are the functions of the larynx?

prevents foreign objects from entering the trachea, passage of air in and out of lungs.

14

9 cartilages that make up the larynx?

thyroid, cricothyroid, cricoid, tracheal, cuneiform, corniculate, arytenoid

15

What is the function of the false vocal cords?

close off glottis to keep food out

16

male vs female vocal cords?

male is more v shaped

17

how do we speak?

pitch changed by amount of tension. modified by resonating chambers, position of lips, mouth and tongue.

18

What is valsalvas maneuver?

closing of the glottis and contraction of the abdominal muscles

19

describe the trachea.

extends from larynx to primary bronchi. made of smooth muscle and 20 c shaped rings of hyaline cartilage. open end of posterior to allow esophagus to expand in.

20

Where is the trachea in relationship to the esophagus?

in front of the esophagus

21

what muscle is found in the trachea?

trachealis

22

what type of tissue lines the trachea?

pseudostratisfied ciliated columnar epithelium

23

what is the carnia?

most sensitive area for cough reflex

24

what membrane surrounds the lungs?

pleural membranes

25

How do the right and left lungs differ?

Right is 3 lobes and 2 fissures, shorter. left is 2 lobes, 1 fissure, cardiac notch

26

What 2 circulations supply the lungs?

pulmonary and bronchial

27

What 3 types of cells would you find in an alveoli and what does each do?

1. simple squamous epithelium-type 1
2. type 2-secrete alveolar fluid
3. dust cells-macrophages

28

What is respiratory distress syndrome?

lack of surfactant produced.`

29

How does expiration occur?

passive relaxation.

30

what is the primary factor which determines the resistance in the lungs?

diameter of the tubes

31

what is lung compliance?

distensibility of lung tissue and alveolar tension, compliance of the thoracic wall

32

what is eupnea?

normal breathing

33

what is apnea?

temporary cessation of breathing

34

what is dyspnea?

painful breathing

35

What is anatomic dead space?

due to conducting parts of the system. equal to ideal weight in pounds

36

Daltons law?

each gas in a mixture exerts its own pressure as if alone

37

henrys law?

the quantity of gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and it's solubility coefficient

38

How is oxygen transported?

98% bound to heme.

39

what is the bohr effect?

hemoglobins oxygen affinity is inversely related to both acidity and carbon dioxide concentration.

40

What 3 ways does blood transport carbon dioxide

7% in plasma, 23 combined to form carbaminohemaglobin, and 70 % converted to bicarbonate