Flashcards in Respiratory system Deck (40):
Entire process of exchanging gasses between the atmosphere and the body cells.
exchanging of gasses between blood and air in the lungs
exchanging of gasses between blood and body cells
use of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide by cells
Why do we need Oxygen?
it is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain
What are the parts of the upper respiratory tract?
nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, pharynx
what are the parts of the lower respiratory tract?
larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, lungs
what type of cartilage makes the nose?
What bones form the nasal cavity?
nasal, frontal, maxillary
respiration. pseudostratisfied ciliated columnar epithelium
digestion. nonkeratinized stratisfied squamous epithelium
respiration. same as oropharynx
What are the functions of the larynx?
prevents foreign objects from entering the trachea, passage of air in and out of lungs.
9 cartilages that make up the larynx?
thyroid, cricothyroid, cricoid, tracheal, cuneiform, corniculate, arytenoid
What is the function of the false vocal cords?
close off glottis to keep food out
male vs female vocal cords?
male is more v shaped
how do we speak?
pitch changed by amount of tension. modified by resonating chambers, position of lips, mouth and tongue.
What is valsalvas maneuver?
closing of the glottis and contraction of the abdominal muscles
describe the trachea.
extends from larynx to primary bronchi. made of smooth muscle and 20 c shaped rings of hyaline cartilage. open end of posterior to allow esophagus to expand in.
Where is the trachea in relationship to the esophagus?
in front of the esophagus
what muscle is found in the trachea?
what type of tissue lines the trachea?
pseudostratisfied ciliated columnar epithelium
what is the carnia?
most sensitive area for cough reflex
what membrane surrounds the lungs?
How do the right and left lungs differ?
Right is 3 lobes and 2 fissures, shorter. left is 2 lobes, 1 fissure, cardiac notch
What 2 circulations supply the lungs?
pulmonary and bronchial
What 3 types of cells would you find in an alveoli and what does each do?
1. simple squamous epithelium-type 1
2. type 2-secrete alveolar fluid
3. dust cells-macrophages
What is respiratory distress syndrome?
lack of surfactant produced.`
How does expiration occur?
what is the primary factor which determines the resistance in the lungs?
diameter of the tubes
what is lung compliance?
distensibility of lung tissue and alveolar tension, compliance of the thoracic wall
what is eupnea?
what is apnea?
temporary cessation of breathing
what is dyspnea?
What is anatomic dead space?
due to conducting parts of the system. equal to ideal weight in pounds
each gas in a mixture exerts its own pressure as if alone
the quantity of gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and it's solubility coefficient
How is oxygen transported?
98% bound to heme.
what is the bohr effect?
hemoglobins oxygen affinity is inversely related to both acidity and carbon dioxide concentration.