Flashcards in Lymphatic system Deck (56):
What are the 3 functions of the lymphatic system?
1. draining interstitial fluid.
2. transporting dietary lipids
What is lymph?
interstitial fluid collected by lymph capillaries.
What are the 2 major lymphatic ducts?
Thoracic- 3/4 of the body.
right lymphatic duct-right arm and right side of upper torso
Where do these ducts empty into the circulating system?
where would you find the cistern chyli
bottom end of thoracic duct
what are the primary organs of the lymphatic system?
red bone marrow and thymus gland
what are the secondary organs of the lymphatic duct?
lymph nodes, lymph nodules, spleen
describe the structure and the function of a lymph node.
made of a capsule, cortex, medulla. provide biological filtration
What does albumin do for the blood?
maintains osmotic pressure
what happens when the flow of lymph is blocked?
What are lacteals and what do they do?
specialized lymphatic capillaries in villi of small intestine that transports lipids
What are lymph nodules?
follicular dendritic cells found in the cortex
what is MALT? what are peyer's patches?
mucosa associated lymphoid tissue. Lymph nodules found in ileum
What are tonsils? 3 major tonsils?
lymphoid tissue under the mucous membranes of the throat. 1. palatine. 2. pharyngeal 3. lingual
What does the thymus do? Where is it located?
in mediastinum above the heart. produces thymosin-aids in maturation of T-cells
What is the white pulp of the spleen? Red pulp?
largest of the lymph organs, the spleen has white pulp-mostly b cells (islands) and red pulp-venous sinuses
What are the functions of the spleen?
blood formation, blood filtration, and platelet storage
What is resistance?
ability to ward off disease
What is susceptibility?
lack of resistance
What lowers skin pH
What is lysozyme?
enzymes that damage bacterial cell walls.
How do transferrins prevent microbe growth?
tie up free iron
What is compliment?
10-20 normally inactive proteins that when activated, enhance certain immune reactions. (activate inflammation, opsonization, cytolysis
How does fever help the body fight off infection?
causes liver and spleen to sequester iron, increases phagocytosis, inhibits microbe growth, speeds up body repair.
4 cardinal signs of inflammation
1. heat 2. swelling 3. redness 4. pain
3 stages of inflammation
1. vasodilation: increased permeability of blood vessels. 2. phagocyte migration. 3. tissue repair
What is phagocytosis?
the engulfing of a foreign cell
Steps of phagocytosis:
1. chemotaxis 2. adherence 3. ingestion
What is adherence difficult?
some bacteria have a capsule surrounding them.
What is a perforin?
pierces bacterial capsule
What are natural killer cells?
next line of defense, lymphocytes that release perforin to look for antigen.
What is the magic word?
what is the magic number?
What is an antigen?
any substance that illicit an immune response
what is a hapten?
small, foreign, and complex molecules that piggy back on other molecules.
what is an epitope?
each antibody recognizes a different part of the protein, called an epitope
What is an antigen presenting cell?
displays antigen to helper t cells until it finds one that has matching receptor for antigen complex.
what is a cytokine?
protein hormone which regulates normal cell functions
What is IgM?
1 antibodies produced. Pentamerous in nature.
what is IgG?
Single unit. abundant in serum. Cross the placenta and have the longest half life
How does cell mediated immunity resemble Antibody mediated immunity?
requires 2 stimuli and produces interlukin 2
How does a Tc cell kill a virus infected cell?
perforins punch holes in the cell membrane, granzymes induce apoptosis
What is a primary immune response?
1st time you encounter an antigen.
What is a secondary immune response?
memory cells allow for faster immune response
How do follicular dendrite cells help maintain immunity?
help b cells become marked as memory cells
How does delayed hypersensitivity occur?
2nd time an antigen is encountered, Td cell produces several cytokines that attract and activate macrophages, resulting in an inflammatory reaction.
How can we counter the effects of immediate hypersensitivity?
desensitize the person by giving allergen to stimulate IgG antibodies. These tie up the antigen before they can bind with IgE.
What is autoimmunity?
the body recognizes itself as foreign
What is an autograph?
what is an allograph?
heart, lungs, kidney rejection
what is an isograph?
allograph with genetic twins
what is a xenograph?
between 2 species
Natural active immunity?
person gets measels
artificial active immunity?
natural passive immunity
baby gets antibodies through milk