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Flashcards in Lymphatic system Deck (56):
1

What are the 3 functions of the lymphatic system?

1. draining interstitial fluid.
2. transporting dietary lipids
3. protection

2

What is lymph?

interstitial fluid collected by lymph capillaries.

3

What are the 2 major lymphatic ducts?

Thoracic- 3/4 of the body.
right lymphatic duct-right arm and right side of upper torso

4

Where do these ducts empty into the circulating system?

subclavian vein

5

where would you find the cistern chyli

bottom end of thoracic duct

6

what are the primary organs of the lymphatic system?

red bone marrow and thymus gland

7

what are the secondary organs of the lymphatic duct?

lymph nodes, lymph nodules, spleen

8

describe the structure and the function of a lymph node.

made of a capsule, cortex, medulla. provide biological filtration

9

What does albumin do for the blood?

maintains osmotic pressure

10

what happens when the flow of lymph is blocked?

edema

11

What are lacteals and what do they do?

specialized lymphatic capillaries in villi of small intestine that transports lipids

12

What are lymph nodules?

follicular dendritic cells found in the cortex

13

what is MALT? what are peyer's patches?

mucosa associated lymphoid tissue. Lymph nodules found in ileum

14

What are tonsils? 3 major tonsils?

lymphoid tissue under the mucous membranes of the throat. 1. palatine. 2. pharyngeal 3. lingual

15

What does the thymus do? Where is it located?

in mediastinum above the heart. produces thymosin-aids in maturation of T-cells

16

What is the white pulp of the spleen? Red pulp?

largest of the lymph organs, the spleen has white pulp-mostly b cells (islands) and red pulp-venous sinuses

17

What are the functions of the spleen?

blood formation, blood filtration, and platelet storage

18

What is resistance?

ability to ward off disease

19

What is susceptibility?

lack of resistance

20

What lowers skin pH

lactic acid

21

What is lysozyme?

enzymes that damage bacterial cell walls.

22

How do transferrins prevent microbe growth?

tie up free iron

23

What is compliment?

10-20 normally inactive proteins that when activated, enhance certain immune reactions. (activate inflammation, opsonization, cytolysis

24

How does fever help the body fight off infection?

causes liver and spleen to sequester iron, increases phagocytosis, inhibits microbe growth, speeds up body repair.

25

4 cardinal signs of inflammation

1. heat 2. swelling 3. redness 4. pain

26

3 stages of inflammation

1. vasodilation: increased permeability of blood vessels. 2. phagocyte migration. 3. tissue repair

27

What is phagocytosis?

the engulfing of a foreign cell

28

Steps of phagocytosis:

1. chemotaxis 2. adherence 3. ingestion

29

What is adherence difficult?

some bacteria have a capsule surrounding them.

30

What is a perforin?

pierces bacterial capsule

31

What are natural killer cells?

next line of defense, lymphocytes that release perforin to look for antigen.

32

What is the magic word?

specific

33

what is the magic number?

2

34

What is an antigen?

any substance that illicit an immune response

35

what is a hapten?

small, foreign, and complex molecules that piggy back on other molecules.

36

what is an epitope?

each antibody recognizes a different part of the protein, called an epitope

37

What is an antigen presenting cell?

displays antigen to helper t cells until it finds one that has matching receptor for antigen complex.

38

what is a cytokine?

protein hormone which regulates normal cell functions

39

What is IgM?

1 antibodies produced. Pentamerous in nature.

40

what is IgG?

Single unit. abundant in serum. Cross the placenta and have the longest half life

41

How does cell mediated immunity resemble Antibody mediated immunity?

requires 2 stimuli and produces interlukin 2

42

How does a Tc cell kill a virus infected cell?

perforins punch holes in the cell membrane, granzymes induce apoptosis

43

What is a primary immune response?

1st time you encounter an antigen.

44

What is a secondary immune response?

memory cells allow for faster immune response

45

How do follicular dendrite cells help maintain immunity?

help b cells become marked as memory cells

46

How does delayed hypersensitivity occur?

2nd time an antigen is encountered, Td cell produces several cytokines that attract and activate macrophages, resulting in an inflammatory reaction.

47

How can we counter the effects of immediate hypersensitivity?

desensitize the person by giving allergen to stimulate IgG antibodies. These tie up the antigen before they can bind with IgE.

48

What is autoimmunity?

the body recognizes itself as foreign

49

What is an autograph?

skin rejection

50

what is an allograph?

heart, lungs, kidney rejection

51

what is an isograph?

allograph with genetic twins

52

what is a xenograph?

between 2 species

53

Natural active immunity?

person gets measels

54

artificial active immunity?

immunization

55

natural passive immunity

baby gets antibodies through milk

56

artificial passive immunity

person receives antibodies through serum