Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy & Physiology > Cardiovascular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular System Deck (60):
0

What does the cardiovascular system consist of?

Heart, blood vessels (arteries,veins,capillaries), blood, medulla oblongata (control centre)

1

Define the pulmonary circulation?

Blood flow between right ventricle & left atrium via the lungs.

2

Define the systemic circulation?

Blood flow from left ventricle to right atrium via the body.

3

What is the purpose of the coronary arteries?

Oxygenated blood from aorta to the myocardium

4

What is the purpose of the cardiac veins?

Deoxygenated blood to the right atrium via the coronary sinus.

5

Name the 3 principle layers of the heart?

Endocardium, myocardium, pericardium

6

Whee would you find the endocardium?

Inner lining of heart chambers

7

Where would you find the myocardium?

Cardiac muscle. Thickest in the left ventricle

8

Where would you find the pericardium?

Covering layer of the heart that forms a sac.

9

What is the name of the inner lining of the pericardial sac?

Epicardium

10

What is the name of the valve located between the right atrium & right ventricle?

Tricuspid valve

11

What is the name of the valve located between the left atrium & left ventricle?

Bicuspid (mitral) valve

12

What is the name of the valve located at the entrance to the pulmonary trunk (pulmonary Artery)?

Pulmonary valve

13

What is the name of the valve located at the entrance to the aorta?

Aortic valve

14

What is the role of the heart?

Role of the heart is to receive blood from tissues and lungs and to pump blood around two circulations (pulmonary & systemic)

15

What is the purpose of the atria?

Receive blood returning from the body (right atrium) & lungs (left atrium)

16

What is the purpose of the right ventricle?

Pumps blood to the lungs

17

What is the purpose of the left ventricle?

Pumps blood to the systemic arteries

18

What is intrinsic rhythmicity?

Contraction & relaxation of myocardial cells.

19

Under what circumstances can intrinsic rhytmicity only happen?

Response to electrical changes in the cell.

20

Where is electrical activity spontaneously generated?

Sino-atrial node

21

Where is the sino-atrial node located?

Wall of the right atrium close to the entrance of the superior vena cava.

22

What does the sa node contain?

Pacemaker cells (show pacemaker activity)

23

How does the sa node work?

Fires impulses (action potentials) spontaneously & sets the rhythm of the heart.

24

Where are action potentials conducted?

Throughout the myocardium. First atria electrically excited then ventricles electrically excited.

25

What is the conduction system of the heart?

San- atria- avn (delayed)- ventricles

26

What fibres carry impulses around the ventricular myocardium?

Bundle of his, bundle branches & purkinje

27

In an ecg what does the p wave measure?

Atrial depolarisation ( electrical excitation)

28

In an ecg what does the qrs complex measure?

Ventricular depolarisation

29

In a ecg what does the t wave measure?

Repolarisation of ventricles ( return to non-excited state)

30

What are the 3 stages of the cardiac cycle?

Systole, myocardium repolarises, diastole

31

Define systole?

Blood is squeezed from the atria into ventricles & then ejected from the ventricles.

32

What follows electrical excitation?

Mechanical contraction (systole)

33

Define diastole?

Relaxation. Refills with blood.

34

Define myocardium repolarisation?

Returns to its resting electrical state

35

What valves close at the start of ventricular systole & open at the start of ventricular diastole?

Tricuspid & bicuspid (mitral) valves

36

What valves open at start of ventricular systole & close at start of ventricular diastole?

Aortic & pulmonary valves.

37

The heart sounds 'lub' & 'dub' correspond to what?

Closure of certain heart valves.

38

Define cardiac output?

Volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle in one minute.

39

What does cardiac output depend on?

Bpm & stroke volume

40

Define stroke volume?

Volume of blood ejected from by the left ventricle in one heartbeat.

41

What is the equation for cardiac output?

Cardiac output = heart rate x stroke volume

42

Define heart rate?

Number of times heart beats in one minute (bpm)

43

What is the normal range for heart rate?

60 - 80 bpm

44

Name the principle pulse points?

Temporal, carotid (neck), brachial (inside elbow), radial (wrist), femoral (groin), popliteal (back of knee). Dorsalis pedis (top of foot)

45

What can alter heart rate?

Exercise, stress, drugs, hormones, nervous system

46

What does the autonomic nervous system do?

Controls physiological processes we have no control over (conciousley) "automatic"

47

Hat effect does the parasympathetic nervous system have on the heart?

Slows heart rate ( important during rest)

48

What effect does the sympathetic nervous system have on the heart?

Accelerates heart rate during exercise or challenges of any kind.

49

What hormones can increase heart rate & stroke volume?

Adrenaline, noradrenaline, thyroxine

50

What is a normal maximum heart rate?

170 - 209 bpm

51

What is tachyardia?

Heart rate above 100 bpm at rest

52

What is bradycardia?

Heart rate below 50 bpm at rest.

53

Under what circumstance may you find someone with a slower resting heart rate?

Fitness

54

What influences stroke volume?

Venous return ( circulating blood volume), reduced venous return (e.g. Haorrhage) reduces sv & thus cardiac output

55

What is a typical stroke volume for a standard man?

70mls per heart beat

56

What determines stroke volume?

How strongly ventricles contract

57

What can change stroke volume?

Exercise, stress, drugs, nerves, hormones

58

What effect does sympathetic stimulation have on stroke volume?

Increases force of heart beat & increases stroke volume

59

What effect does parasympathetic stimulation have on stroke volume?

Tends to reduce stroke volume.