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Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (97):
0

Why do we breath?

To gain oxygen for metabolism
To get rid of carbon dioxide

1

What is the equation for energy production?

Oxygen + glucose = energy (ATP) + water + carbon dioxide

2

What are the structures of the respiratory system?

Lungs
Airways
Respiratory muscles
Pons & medulla oblongata (respiratory control areas of the brain)

3

In order where does air pass through on its way to the lungs?

Nose/mouth
Nasopharynx
Oropharynx
Laryngopharynx
Larynx
Trachea
Bronchi
Secondary (lobar) bronchi
Bronchioles
respiratory bronchioles
Alveoli

4

What is the name of the two membranes that cover the lungs?

Pleural membranes

5

What is the name of the inner pleural membrane & what is it attached to?

Visceral membrane
Attached to the surface of the lungs

6

What is the name of the outer pleural membrane & what is it attached to?

Parietal membrane
Attached to the inside of the chest wall.

7

What happens to the lungs during breathing due the arrangement of the pleural membranes?

As the chest walks move, the lungs follow.

8

What fills the gap between the visceral & parietal membranes?

Pleural fluid.

9

What is the function of pleural fluid?

Reduce friction

10

Name the respiratory muscles?

Diaphragm
Internal & external intercostal muscles (between ribs)
Accessory muscles of the neck and abdomen (scalenes-neck) (oblique abdominals)

11

What is the anatomical name for the nostrils?

Nares

12

What lines the naval cavity & what is there purpose?

Coarse hairs to trap entering particles

13

What are the 3 shelves in the nasal cavity called & what is their purpose?

Turbinates (cartilage)
Create turbulence & also catch particles

14

What type of epithelium lines the nasal cavity?

Mucociliary epithelium

15

What type of cells lines the nasal cavity?

Columnar ciliated cells interspersed with goblet (mucus-secreting) cells.

16

What does the nasal cavity do do the air that passes through?

Warms air
Humidifies (moistens)
Cleans the air

17

What is the pharynx?

Throat & the common tube for food & air

18

Hat are the 3 parts of the pharynx?

Nasopharynx
Oropharynx
Laryngopharynx/ hypopharynx

19

What links the pharynx to the middle ear?

Eustachian tube

20

What lines the pharynx?

Mucociliary epithelium

21

What does the pharynx divide ventrally into?

Trachea

22

What foes the pharynx divide dorsally into?

Oesophagus

23

What covers the trachea during swallowing?

Epiglottis

24

What is the anatomical name of the voice box?

Larynx

25

What does the larynx consist of?

Cartilage & vocal folds

26

How does the larynx work?

Folds vibrate as air passes over them during expiration to produce sounds

27

What does the larynx mark the end of?

Upper respiratory tract

28

What is the anatomical name for the wind pipe?

Trachea

29

How big is the trachea?

Tube around 12cm long & 1.8cm in diameter

30

What lines the trachea?

Mucociliary epithelium

31

How does the preparation of air continue in the trachea?

Mucociliary escalator

32

How dies the cell shape change in the trachea?

More cuboidal

33

What supports the trachea?

Rings of cartilage (c-rings)

34

Why are c-rings incomplete posteriorly?

To allow room for the oesophagus to expand

35

What is the name of the place where the trachea divide into the 2 main bronchi (primary bronchi)

Carina

36

At what level is the carina located?

Level of the 5th thoracic vertebrae

37

Why is the mucus lining of the trachea highly sensitive?

So cough reflexes are triggered easily

38

How many generations are there in the respiratory tree?

23

39

What generation is the trachea in the respiratory tree?

0

40

What generation are the primary bronchi in the respiratory tree?

1

41

What generation are the secondary (lobar) bronchi in the respiratory tree?

2

42

What generations are the bronchioles in the respiratory tree?

12-19

43

What are the final generations of the respiratory tree?

Respiratory bronchioles
Alveoli

44

Name all the generations of the respiratory tree?

Trachea
Primary bronchi
Secondary (lobar) bronchi
Bronchioles
Respiratory bronchioles
Alveoli

45

What changes occur in the small bronchi & bronchioles?

Wall of the airway changes

46

What does the bronchus have more of?

More muscle
Glands
More cilia
Goblet cells
Cartilage
Thicker walls

47

What does the bronchiole have more of?

More blood vessels

48

What within the airways walls allows its diameter to alter?

Smooth muscle

49

What determines airway resistance?

Diameter of airways

50

What is bronchoconstriction?

Narrowing of the airways

51

What causes bronchoconstriction?

Parasympathetic stimulation & increase in airway resistance

52

What is bronchodilation?

Widening of the airways

53

What does bronchodilation reduce?

Airway resistance

54

What causes bronchodilation?

Adrenaline & noradrenaline secreted by adrenal medulla

55

What is the alveoli?

Site of gas exchange

56

What are the alveoli & what are they lined with?

Tiny sacs lined by simple cuboidal/squamous epithelium

57

Why are the alveoli lined with simple cuboidal/squamous epithelium?

Easier for the air to pass the membrane

58

What is each alveolus surrounded by?

About 100 pulmonary capillaries

59

What are the pulmonary capillaries lined by & what is this sometimes called?

Simple epithelium
Endothelium

60

What does the alveoli create to aid gas exchange?

Huge surface area

61

What does the pulmonary trunk carry?

Deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs

62

What do the pulmonary veins carry?

Oxygenated blood from lungs to heart

63

How does gas exchange happen in the alveoli?

Co2 diffuses down its concentration gradient from the deoxygenated capillary blood into the alveolar air. It is then expelled from the body during expiration

64

What regulates the basic respiratory rhythm?

Medulla oblongata & pons (brainstem)

65

How does the medulla oblongata regulate basic respiratory rate?

Houses neurones that fire an intrinsic rhythm that coincides with the respiratory cycle

66

How do the respiratory neurones work in relation to respiratory rhythm?

Inspiratory neurone & expiratory neurones fire alternatively

67

What does the pons appear to play a role in regarding respiration?

Regulation of respiratory rate & depth

68

Why do we breath?

Inhale oxygen & exhale Co2 to aid normal cell function

69

What does breathing maintaining?

Normal arterial blood gas (ABG) levels

70

What can too much Co2 cause?

pH to fall

71

What does insufficient oxygen cause?

Cells are unable to make energy

72

What does the respiratory system use to maintain normal (homeostasis) blood gas?

Negative feedback loop

73

How do chemoreceptors work?

Sense changes in chemical composition

74

What are the 3 stages of the respiratory systems negative feedback loop?

Receptors- chemoreceptors
Integrator- brainstem (medulla oblongata & pons)
Effectors- changes to respiratory rate & depth

75

What two types of chemoreceptors are there?

Central & peripheral

76

What do central chemoreceptors send signals to?

Medulla oblongata

77

What do central chemoreceptors respond to?

Changes in blood pH levels & levels of CO2 in arterial blood (PaCO2)

78

What are central chemoreceptors not sensitive to?

Oxygen

79

What are peripheral chemoreceptors also called?

Carotoid bodies

80

Where are peripheral chemoreceptors located?

Close to the carotid arteries & receive a rich blood supply

81

What do peripheral chemoreceptors respond to?

Changes in blood pH, PaCO2 & significant changes in PaO2 (arterial oxygen level)

82

What provides information about lung inflation?

Lung stretch receptors

83

What gives input regarding respiratory volume control?

Cerebral cortex (limited by the need to regulate blood gas levels)

84

What do irritant receptors do?

Trigger protective reflexes (cough, sneeze, etc.)

85

What are the two laws regarding gas?

1. Air moves from higher to lower pressure.
2. The pressure exerted by air is inversely related to its volume.

86

What muscles are used during inspiration & how do they work?

Diaphragm
External intercostal muscles
Muscles contract to expand chest.

87

What happens to the lungs during expiration?

Elastic recoil of lungs
Mostly passive

88

What does forced expiration require?

Contraction of internal intercostal muscles.
Accessory muscles may be recruited in very heavy breathing/respiratory illness.

89

What is tidal volume?

How much air you breath in & out.

90

What is vital capacity?

Maximum inspiration followed by maximum expiration.

91

What is residual volume?

Air that remains in the lungs after maximum expiration.

92

What does PEFR stand for?

Peak Expiratory Flow Rate

93

What does peak flow measure?

Width of airways. Measures speed in ltrs per min.

94

What does FEV1 stand for?

Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec

95

What does FEV1 measure?

Provides info on airway resistance & efficiency of respiratory muscles.

96

What are the natural variables of peak flow?

Circadian rhythm
Exercise