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Anatomy & Physiology > Cells > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cells Deck (40):
0

What does a cells nucleus house?

DNA within chromosomes

1

How many chromosomes does a somatic cell contain?

23 Pairs

2

How many chromosomes does a gamete contain?

23 unpaired chromosomes

3

Where would you find gamete cells?

Ova & sperm

4

What does the nucleus control

Cell division

5

What is the human diploid number?

46

6

What is the human haploid number?

23

7

What do cells require in order to carry out their functions?

Energy

8

What is the name of the membrane that surrounds a cell?

Plasma membrane

9

What is the purpose of the plasma membrane?

Give the cell its shape & structural integrity & regulate substances in and out of the cell

10

When identical diploid daughter cells divide it is called?

Mitosis

11

What is the purpose of mitosis?

Grow & repair tissue

12

What is the division of non-identical daughter cells called?

Meiosis

13

What organelle in cells manufactures the production of the organelles that synthesize protein?

Nucleus

14

What are the organelles that synthesize new proteins called?

Ribosomes

15

Where are ribosomes found?

Rough ER or in polyribosomes within cytoplasm

16

Which organelle has a double mambrane and produces energy?

Mitochondria

17

What is the inner folded membrane of a Mitochondria called?

Cristae

18

What does the Mitochondria house?

Enzymes involved in metabolism

19

What two elements does the Mitochondria use to produce energy?

Oxygen & glucose

20

What is the equation for aerobic respiration?

Glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water = ENERGY

21

What is energy stored as in a cell?

Adenosine TriPhosphate (ATP)

22

What type of cell does not have a Mitochondria?

Red blood cells

23

What can Mitochodria do that most other organelles cant?

Divide independently of their host cell.

24

Why can Mitochondria divide independently?

They posses DNA

25

What organelle contains enzymes that allow it to digest unwanted materials?

Lysosome

26

Where do lysosomes derive from?

Golgi apparatus

27

What is the Golgi Apparatus?

Series of flattened membranous sacks involved in packaging proteins.

28

What organelle has both smooth & rough varieties?

Endoplasmic Reticulum

29

What is the ER associated with?

Nucleur envelope

30

What is housed in the rough ER & why is it important?

Houses ribosomes. Important in protein synthesis.

31

What is the smooth ER involved in?

Lipid (fat) synthesis

32

What type of membrane transport uses diffusion to move down a concentration gradient and does not require energy?

Passive transport

33

What type of membrane transport is facilitated & requires a protein carrier to assist movement across a membrane?

Carrier mediated transport

34

What type of membrane transport is the movement of water from a solution if more dilute to a solution more concentrated?

Osmosis

35

What membrane transport occurs against a concentration gradient & requires energy from the breakdown of ATP?

Active transport

36

What is the breakdown of ATP called?

Hydrolysis

37

What membrane transport is a way of transporting large quantities of substances/ large particles across plasma membranes?

Bulk transport

38

What is the process in which cell eating & debris engulfing takes place?

Phagocytosis

39

What is exocytosis?

Injected out of cell