Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardiovascular System Deck (61):
1

The purpose of the cardiovascular system... (4)

1. Vital for survival
2. Carries oxygen and nutrients to tissues
3. Carries wastes away from tissues
4. Closed system

2

What are the 2 circuits of the cardiovascular system?

1. Pulmonary
2. Systemic

3

Flow of the pulmonary system

-Heart to lungs and back
-Oxygenates blood

4

Flow of the systemic system

-Heart to body and back
-Delivers oxygen to tissues

5

Structure of the heart (5)

1. Cone shaped
2. Inside pericardial cavity
3. Inside mediastinum
4. Apex tipped toward the inferior and the left
5. Base superior

6

Double serious membrane with fibrous coat

Pericardium

7

What are the layers that make up the pericardium (2)

1. Parietal pericardium
2. Epicardium

8

-Outer layer of the sac
-Fibrous and areolar layer

Parietal Pericardium

9

-Also known as the visceral pericardium
-Inner layer of sac
-Adheres to the heart wall

Epicardium

10

Cavity that it is between layers and contains serous fluids

Pericardial Cavity

11

Layers of the wall of the heart

1. Epicardium
2. Myocardium
3. Endocardium

12

Layer that is composed of visceral pericardium
-Functions as the protective outer layer

Epicardium

13

-Middle layer
-Responsible for contractions
-Made of cardiac muscle

Myocardium

14

-Inner layer
-Lines and protects chambers and valves
-Continuous with endothelium of heart blood vessels

Endocardium

15

Cardiac Muscle Characteristics (5)

1. Striated
2. Aerobic Respiration
3. Short T-tubules
4. Autorhythmic
5. Connected mechanically and chemically

16

How is cardiac muscle connected mechanically and chemically? (2)

1. Intercalated discs
2. Gap junctions

17

What are the 4 chambers of the heart?

-2 atria
-2 ventricles

18

General characteristics of the 2 atria? (3)

1. Superior chambers
2. Receive blood from veins
3. Have auricles

19

What are auricles?

Flaps where blood pools

20

General characteristics of the ventricles (2)

1. Inferior chambers
2. Force blood out too arteries

21

Structural differences between the ventricles (4)

1. Left is thicker and stronger
2. Right goes only to the lungs
3. Left is round
4. Right is pouch shaped

22

Characteristics about the Tricuspid Valve (4)

1. AKA Right Atrioventricular Valve
2. At right atrioventricular orifice
3. Open when atrial force is greater and close when ventricle force is greater
4. 3 cusps

23

Characteristics of the Bicuspid Valve (3)

1. AKA Left Atrioventricular valve
2. At left artioventricular orifice
3. 2 cusps

24

Known as "heart strings"

Chordae Tendonae

25

Characteristics of Chorae Tendonae (3)

1. Hold valves in place
2. Attached to cusps on ventricles side
3. Prevents cusps from collapsing into atria when valve is closed and backflow of blood

26

Characteristics of Papillary Muscles (3)

1. Small bundles of muscles
2. Attach to the chordae tendonae
3. When valves close, these muscles contract and tighten cords

27

Name of the scaffolding on interior walls

Trabeculae Carneae

28

Name of valve between ventricle and artery

Semilunar Valves

29

-Right semilunar valve
-At entrance of the pulmonary trunk
-Opens when the right ventricle contracts

Pulmonary Valve

30

-Left semilunar valve
-At entrance to aorta
-Opens when left ventricle contracts

Aortic Valve

31

Path of Blood (

1. Right Atrium
2. Right AV valve
3. Right Ventricle
4. Pulmonary Valve
5. Pulmonary Trunk
6. Lungs
7. Left Atrium
8. Left AV valve
9. Left Ventricle
10. Aortic Valve
11. Aorta- to tissues

32

Type of circulation that supplies the heart tissues with blood
-blockage can result in a heart tissue dying

Coronary Circulation

33

Arteries that branch directly off the aorta as is emerges

Coronary Arteries

34

2 Components of the Left Coronary Artery

1. Circumflex Artery
2. Anterior Interventricular Artery

35

2 Components of the Right Coronary Artery

1. Posterior Interventricular Artery
2. Marginal Artery

36

-Drain myocardium
-Travel with arteries

Cardiac Veins

37

What are the 3 cardiac veins and what do these all drain into?

1. Great
2. Middle
3. Small
-All drain into the coronary sinus

38

Where does the coronary sinus empty into?

The right atrium

39

Contractile phase, chamber empties

Systole

40

Relaxation phase, chamber fills

Diastole

41

Lub =

AV valves close

42

Dub=

Semi lunar valves close

43

Heat beat is enabled by... (2)

1. Nodal Cells
2. Conducting Fibers

44

Specialized muscle cells that conduct action potentials

Nodal Cells

45

Distributes stimulus to myocardium

Conducting Fibers

46

-Pacemaker
-Spontaneously depolarizes
-At the back wall of the right atrium

SA (sinoatrial) node

47

-Where the 4 chambers meet

AV (atrioventricular) node

48

Signal transmitted to AV node through...

Internodal Pathways

49

Transmits signal down the Interventricular septum

AV bundle

50

-Branch off the AV bundle
-Moves further down the septum
-One supplies the ventricle

Bundle Branches

51

-Reflect up external wall of ventricle
-Extend to papillary muscles

Purkinje Fibers

52

The different waves in a electrocardiogram...

1. P wave
2. QRS wave
3. T wave

53

Wave that depicts the depolarization of atria

P wave

54

Depolarization of ventricle

QRS wave

55

Repolarization of ventricle

T wave

56

Cardiac output =

5 L/min

57

Spontaneous contractions

Autorhythmicity

58

Autonomic chemical control is controlled by...

NE and E: they increase the rate and force

59

2 centers of Neural control in the medulla

1. Cardioacceleratory
2. Cardioinhibitory

60

Release NE/ increase HR

Cardioacceleratory Centers

61

Release Ach/ decrease HR

Cardioinhibitory Centers