Integumentary System (KT) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Integumentary System (KT) Deck (88):
1

What are the 2 components of the integumentary system?

1. Cutaneous Membrane
2. Accessory Structures

2

What is included in the cutaneous membrane? (2)

1. Epidermis
2. Dermis

3

What is included in the Accessory Structures? (3)

1. Hair
2. Nails
3.Glands

4

Functions of the Integumentary System? (4)

1. Protection
2. Heat regulation
3. Excretion of urea and uric acid
4. Synthesizes Vitamin D

5

What does the integumentary system protect the body from? (6)

1. Mechanical Damage
2. Chemical Damage
3. Bacterial Damage
4. Thermal Damage
5. UV radiation
6. Desiccation

6

Characteristics of the epidermis (4)

1. Stratified squamous epithelium
2. Lacks blood vessels but can divide
3. As new cells grow, the older cells get pushed to the surface
4. Outer most layers are dead

7

The 4 cell types of the Epidermis

1. Keratinocytes (90%)
2. Melanocytes (8%)
3. Langerhan Cells
4. Merkel Cells

8

Characteristics of...
Keratinocytes

-produce keratin
-provide protection

9

Characteristics of...
Melanocytes

-produce melanin pigments which protects against UV radiation
-melanin transferred to other cells with long cell processes

10

Characteristics of...
Langerhan Cells

-from bone marrow
-part of an immune response

11

Stem cells divide to produce __________ at the basal lamina

Keratinocytes

12

As keratinocytes are pushed up towards the surface...

-They will fill with keratin and oils
-They slowly die
-Its a 4 week journey unless the outer layers are removed by abrasion

13

Layers of the Epidermis (5)

1. Stratum Germinativum
2. Stratum Spinosum
3. Stratum Granulosum
4. Stratum Lucidum
5. Stratum Corneum

14

Characteristics of Stratum Germativum (2)

1. Deepest single layer of cells
2. Combination of merkel cells, melanocytes, kerytinocytes and stem cells that divide repeatedly

15

How are cells attached in the Stratum Germativum layer?

Cells attached to each other and to the basal lamina by desmosomes & hemidesmosomes

16

Characteristics of the Stratum Spinosum (3)

1. 8-10 cell layers held together by desmosomes
2. Melanin taken in by the phagocytosis from near by melanocytes
3. During slide preparation cells shrink and look spiny

17

Characteristics of Stratum Granulosum (3)

1. 3 to 5 layers of flat dying cells
2. Show nuclear degeneration
3. Contain dark-staining keratohyalin granules

18

What are keratohyalin granules?

They release lipids that repel water

19

Characteristics of Stratum Lucidum (2)

1. Seen in think skin on palms and soles of feet ONLY
2. 3 to 5 layers of clear, flat, dead cells

20

Characteristics of Stratum Corneum (4)

1. 25 to 30 layers of flat dead cells filled with keratin and surrounded by lipids
2. Continuously shed
3. Barrier to light, heat, water, chemicals and bacteria
4. Friction stimulates callus formation

21

2 types of Skin Thickness

1. Thick Skin
2. Thin Skin

22

Think Skin

-Palmar and Planter surface
-About 30 layers of Stratum Corneum
-All 5 layers

23

Thin Skin

- Rest of body surfaces
- Fewer layers of Stratum Corneum
-No Stratum Lucidum

24

-Stratum germativum forms ridges that extend into the dermis
-Increases area of contact for better grip

Epidermal Ridges

25

-Produced in the epidermis by melanocytes

Melanin

26

Facts about Melanocytes

-Same number of melanocytes in everyone but different amounts of pigment produced
-UV in sunlight increases melanin production

27

Melanin production is in response to...

Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone

28

Melanocytes convert _________ to melanin?

Tyrosine

29

True/ False: There are several different types of melanin.

True

30

Typical brown or black melanin

Eumelanin

31

Red brown version of melanin

Pheomelanin

32

Freckles or liver spots...

Melanocytes in a patch

33

Benign localized overgrowth of melanocytes

Nevus or mole

34

Inherited lack of tyrosine; no pigment

Albinism

35

-Yellow orange pigment (precursor of Vitamin A)
-Found in stratum Corneum & Subcutaneous

Carotine

36

-Red, oxygen-carrying pigment in blood cells
-if other pigments are not present, epidermis is translucent and pinkness will be evident

Homoglobin

37

What are the 2 layers the dermis is composed of?

-Papillary Layer
-Reticular Layer

38

What does the Papilary Layer of the Dermis consist of?

-Areolar Connective Tissue
-Capillaries and Neurons
-Dermal Papillae

39

What does the Reticular Layer of the Dermis consist of?

-Anchoring layer
-Large vessels, nerves, adiposcytes, arrector pili muscle
-Dense irregular connective tissue
-Collagen-strength
-Elastic-strength, flexibility

40

These provide blood supply to the skin... (2)

- Cutaneous Plexus
-Papillary Plexus

41

-Network of arteries & veins supplying the skin
- In the subcutaneous layer

Cutaneous Plexus

42

-Follows the epidermal and dermal boundary
-Helps nourish the epidermal layer

Papillary Plexus

43

The stretching of fibers, loss of their elasticity, breaking of fibers

Stretch marks

44

Stretch marks form due to...

-Decrease in fiber elasticity
-Tearing of fibers

45

Also called the superficial fascia or the subcutaneous layer...

Hypodermis

46

What does the hypodermis consist of...?

-Areolar Connective Tissue
-Adipose connective tissue (insulator)
-Collagen and Elastic fibers
-No distinct boundary with dermis
-Major blood vessels & nerves
-Stabilizes skin

47

Hair (an accessory structure) is on most surfaces except... (4)

1. Plantar and Palmer Surfaces
2. Parts of digits
3. Lips
4. Eyelids (except eye lashes)

48

True/False: Hair number is fixed at birth?

True

49

What are the types of hair... (3)

1. Vellus (peach fuzz)
2. Terminal (thicker with darker pigment)
3. Intermediate (arms)
*Hair is based on body location, age, and gender

50

The 3 basic parts of hair...

1. Shaft- mostly projects above the surface of the skin
2. Root- Penetrates into the dermis
3. Bulb- is the base of the follicle

51

Each hair consists of... (3)

1. Cuticle (outer most)
2. Cortex (middle)
3. Medulla (inner most)

52

What is hair composed of?

Dead keratinized epidermal cells

53

What does a hair follicle consist of?

(hair follicles surround the root)
-Has many sheaths and layers

54

Functions of hair... (3)

1. Protection
2. Reduction of heat loss
3. Sensing light touch

55

Part of hair that...
-Sensory nerves surrounding follide
-Detect hair movement

Root hair Plexus

56

Part of hair that...
-is made up of smooth muscle
-Moves hair
-Causes "goose bumps"

Arrector Pili

57

Stages of hair growth... (3)

1. Anagen Stage
2. Catagen Stage
3. Telogen Stage

58

-Lasts from 2 to 6 years depending on the boy part
-matrix cells at base of hair root producing length

Anagen Stage

59

-Lasts up to 2 weeks
-Matrix cells inactive and follide atrophies

Catagen Stage

60

-Hair follicle remains dormant
-Hair is eventually pushed out by new hair as cycle renews

Telogen Stage

61

This is the result of melanin produced in melanocytes in hair bulb

Hair color

62

Brown black/brown hair contains large amounts of...

Eumelanin

63

Blond hair results from...

Little eumelanin

64

Red hair has a high relative amount of...

Pheomelanin

65

Gray hair is the result of...

decline in all melanin production

66

Specialized exocrine glands found in the dermis... (4)

1. Sebaceous Glands
2. Sudoriferous Glands
3. Ceruminous Glands
4. Mammary Glands

67

-Secrete sebum (oil) by HOLOCRINE secretion
-Sebum decreases evaporation and decreases bacterial growth

Sebaceous Glands

68

2 Types of Sebaceous Glands

1. With hair- sebum released into follicle
2. Not with hair- Sebum secreted onto epidermis

69

-Sweat glands
-Coiled tubular gland
-Sweat released by MEROCRINE secretion
-Under neutral control

Sudoriferous Glands

70

Types of Sudoriferous Glands (2)

1. Apocrine
2. Eccrine

71

-On most body surfaces
-Greatest on palm
-Not associated with hair follicle
- Watery secretion called sensible perspiration

Eccrine Sweat Glands

72

Sensible perspiration is made up of... (3)

1. water
2. NaCl
3. Urea

73

Function of Eccrine Glands... (3)

1. Cooling
2. Excretion
3. Protection

74

-Associated with hair follicle
-Located in axillae & groin
-Produces viscous secretion starting at puberty

Apocrine Sweat

75

Functions of Apocrine Sweat Glands

-Reducing Friction
-Cooling
-Secrete pheromones

76

Modified Apocrine Sweat Glands... (2)

-Mammary (lactiferous) for milk production
-Ceruminous - in external ear, its secretion mixes with sebum to create ear wax

77

Parts of Nails... (4)

1. Nail Body
2. Nail Bed
3. Nail root
4. Lunula

78

Keratinized plate like structure

Nail body

79

Surface of the skin that covers the nail body

Nail bed

80

Source of nail production

Nail Root

81

Whitish, half-moon region at the base of the nail plate

Lunula

82

Tissue damage and cell death caused by heat, electricity, UV radiation or chemicals

Burns

83

Associated dangers of burns... (3)

1. Dehydration
2. Electrolyte imbalance
3. Circulatory Shock

84

Characteristics of First Degree Burns

-skin red and swollen
-only epidermis damaged

85

Characteristics of Second Degree Burns

-skin red with blisters
-epidermis and upper dermis damaged

86

Characteristics of Third Degree Burns

-Gray, whitish, or black
-Destroys entire layer

87

Burns are critical when...

-Over 25% of body has second degree
-Over 10% of body has third degree

88

Effects of Aging... (5)

1. Less hair
2. Reduced blood supply
3. Dermis tends to be thin
4. Drying of epidermis
5. Fewer melanocytes