Flashcards in Chapter 27 - Reproductive System Deck (146):
What are the functions of the reproductive system?
Produce some reproductive hormones, produce gametes, facilitate fertilaztion, proivde nutrients and gestate fetus, provide nutrients for newborn.
Functions of the male reproductive system?
Produce & maintain gametes, transport gametes into female for fertilization, and secrete sex hormones.
What are suspended by a spermatic cord within scrotum?
What do testes do?
Produce sperm and male sex hormones.
What hormones to testes produce?
Androgens such as testosterone.
What does testosterone do in fetal development?
Stimulate formation of reproductive organs and stimulate descent of testes.
What does testosterone do during puberty?
Stimulate development of secondary sex characteristics, increase cellular metabolism, increase production of RBCs, and stimulate sexual activity.
What is the scrotum?
Pouch of skin inferior to perineum and each testis occupies a scrotal cavity.
What are the 3 structures of the scrotum?
Tunica vaginalis, dartos muscle, and cremaster muscle.
What is the tunica vaginalis?
Serous membrane surrounding each testis.
What does the dartos muscle do?
Wrinkling of scrotum.
What does the cremaster muscle do?
Elevates testes closer to body to keep them at the proper temperature.
Where does the spermatic cord extend?
Through the inguinal cavity.
What comprises the spermatic cord?
Vas deferens, gentiofemoral nerve, differential artery, testicular artery, and pampiniform.
What do lobules in the testes house?
How are lobules separeted from one another?
How many coiled tubes per tubule?
What does each tubule straighten into?
What is the maze called that straight tubules meet?
Where are intestitial cells located and what do the produce?
Found in between the tubules and produce testosterone.
What is spermatogenesis?
The process where sperm cells are made.
Where does spermatogenesis occur?
In the seminiferous tubules.
When does meiosis occur during spermatogenesis?
Midway through and results in haploid sperm.
What are nurse cells stimulated by during spermatogenesis?
Stimulated by FSH and testosterone.
What do nurse cells do during spermatogenesis?
Support growth of the sperm, maintain blood testes barrier, and produce the hormone inhibin.
What does inhibin do?
What are the 5 stages of spermatogenesis?
What are the structures of a sperm?
Head, neck, middlepiece, and tail.
What is in the head of sperm?
What is an acrosome?
A vesicular compartment containing enzymes to penetrate oocyte.
What does the middlepiece contain?
What is the tail?
Where does the epididymis lie?
Posterior border of testes.
What are the regions of the epididymis?
Head, body, and tail.
What are the functions of the epididymis?
Recyles damaged spermatazoa and stores spermatozoa and matures them.
Where do the spermatozoa go to after the testes?
How long does the maturation process take in the epidiymis?
What is another name for the ductus deferens?
Where does the vas deferens travel?
Out of the scrotum and around posterior of the bladder and merges with the seminal vesicles.
What is the enlarged portion at the base?
What occurs at the ampulla?
Peristalsis may occur.
What does the seminal vesicle lead to?
What is the seminal vesicles?
First of three glands that contribute to semen.
Location of the seminal vesicles?
Posterior to bladder.
What do the seminal vesicles secrete?
60% semen volume, fructose, prostoglandins, and clotting factors.
What do the seminal vesicles do?
Cause sperm to become motile.
Prostate gland characteristics?
Muscular, rounded organ, and 4 cm diameter.
Location of prostate?
Inferior to bladder.
What does the prostate surround?
What does the prostate secrete?
Antibiotic and seminalplasmin.
Where is the bulbourethral?
Found in the urogenital diaphragm.
What does the bulbourethal secrete?
A thick alkaline mucus.
What is the PENIS made of?
Tow sets of erectile tissue.
What are the erectile tissues?
Corpora cavenosa and corpus spongiosum.
Corpora cavernosa characteristics?
Two cylindrical masses with a central artery.
Corpus spongiosum characteristics?
One mass that houses the urethra.
How does an erection occur?
Parasympathetic stimulation occurs causing both tissues to fill with blood.
What are the structures of the PENIS?
Root, body, and glans.
What is the root?
Corpora cavernosa that extends to the ischial rami.
What is the body?
Tubular and consists of all erectile tissues.
What is the glans?
Enlarged, distal portion of corpus spongiosum and it is cover by a flap of skin?
What is the name of the skin that covers the glans?
What are the 3 parts of the urethra in males?
Prostatic urethra, membranous urethra, and spongy urethra.
Where does the prostatic urethra run?
Through the prostate.
Where does the membranous urethra run?
Through the urogenital spongiosum.
Where does the spongy run and exit?
Runs through the corpus spongiosum and exits at external urethral orifice.
What are the functions of the female system?
Produce & maintain sex cells, transport sex cells to site of fertilization, provide favorable environment for developing offspring, move offspring to outside, and produce female sex hormone.
What are the ligaments of the female reproductive system?
Broad ligament, ovarian ligament, suspensory ligament and uterosacral ligament.
What does the broad ligament do?
Encloses superior internal structures.
What does the ovarian ligament connect?
Ovary to uterus.
What does the suspensory ligament connect?
Ovary to pelvic wall.
What does the uterosacral ligament connect?
Inferior uterus to sacrum.
Location of ovaries?
Paired organs at the lateral walls of pelvic cavity.
What do the ovaries do?
Receive blood from ovarian arteries & veins and house the gametes.
What are the ovaries covered by?
Germinal epithelium and tunica albuginea.
What is oogenesis?
What are the 4 stages of oogenesis?
Oogonium, primary oocyte, secondary oocyte, and ovum.
Oogonium develops when?
Primary oocyte develops when?
Secondary oocyte develops when?
Just before ovulation.
When does the ovum occur?
ONLY during fertilization.
What are the 7 steps of the ovarian cycle?
1. All follicles start as small primordial follicles.
2. 1 primordial follicle develops into a primary follicle.
3. The primary follicle enlarges and matures into a mature follicle.
4. Ovulation occurs.
5. The remaining follicle now develops into a corpus luteum.
6. If fertilization occurs the corpus luteum remains.
7. If no fertilization the corpus luteum deteriorates into the corpus albicans.
What does the primary follicle do?
Grows granulosa cells and starts to produce estrogens.
What does the mature follicle do?
Primary oocyte becomes a secondary oocyte, granulosa cells increase in number, a fluid antrum forms, and make even more estrogen.
What happens when ovulation occurs?
Secondary oocyte is released.
What happens when the corpus luteum forms?
Makes both progesterone and estrogen.
What happens if fertilization occurs?
Corpus luteum continues to produce progesterone and estrogen.
What happens when the corpus albicans forms?
Hormone levels drop and cycle begins again.
What is another name for the uterine tubes?
What are the parts of the fallopian tubes?
Infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus.
What is the infundibulum?
Expanded end and contains the fimbriae.
What is the fimbriae?
Finger like projections.
What is the ampulla?
What is the isthmus?
The narrow section.
What do the fallopian tubes consist of?
Smooth muscle and ciliated epithelium.
When do the cilia beat?
When ovulation occurs.
How long does the oocyte take to travel through the fallopian tube?
When must fertilization occur in the fallopian tube?
During the first half of the trip.
What is the shape of the uterus?
Small and pear shaped. (I bet you won't look at pears the same way now hehe)
Where does the uterus sit?
On top of the bladder?
I a woman's uterus usually anterflexed or retroflexed?
What percent of women have a retroflexed uterus?
What are the major sections of the uterus?
Fundus, body, and cervix.
What is in the body?
What is in the cervix?
Internal os, cervical canal, and external os.
What are the layers of the uterine wall?
Perimetrium, myometrium, and endometrium.
Incomplete out visceral peritoneum.
Muscular layer and 1.5 cm thick.
Glandular inner layer.
What are the layers of the endometrium?
Functional layer and basilar layer.
Which layer is shed during menses?
What are the 3 phases of the uterine cycle?
Menses, proliferative, and secretory.
What causes the menses phase?
Caused by a drop in estrogen and progesterone due to the corpus albican.
What occurs in the menses phase?
Arteries constrict, secretory tissues and glands begin to die, and functional layer is shed.
What causes the proliferative phase?
Caused by the production of estrogen by the follicle.
What occurs during the proliferative phase?
Basal epithelium multiplies and glands regrow.
When does the proliferative phase last until?
What causes the secretory phase?
Caused by progesterone and estrogen released by the corpus luteum.
What occurs during the secretory phase?
Endometrial glands enlarge, arterial elongation, peaks at 12 days after ovulation.
When will the secretory phase persist?
When will the secretory phase stop and deterioration begin?
When the corpus albicans occurs.
What is the VAGINA composed of?
Stratified squamous epithelium, smooth muscle, and elastic fibers.
Characteristics of the VAGINA?
Has rugae, cervix projects into the vaginal canal, exits to the outside, and contains the hymen.
What is the hymen?
An epithelial fold that partially blocks the entrance.
What are the functions of the VAGINA?
Passageway for the elimination of menstrual fluids, receives PENIS and hold spermatozoa, and lower portion of the birth canal.
What are the female external organs?
Vulva, Labia minora, and clitoris.
What is the vulva?
The external genital area.
What is the labia minora?
Smooth, hairless, and skin flaps surrounding the vestibule.
What does the vestibule contain?
The urethral opening and the VAGINAL entrance.
What is the clitoris?
What is the clitoris surrounded by?
What is the outer vulva made up of?
Mons pubis and labia majora.
What is the location of mammary glands?
Found within pectoral fat pads in the subcutaneous tissue.
What are mammary glands supported by?
What do the lobes of mammary glands do?
What does milk move through?
Where is milk stored?
In the lactiferous sinuses.
Where does milk exit?
Through the nipple?
What is the area around the nipple?
What hormones trigger milk production?
Prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and human placental lactogen (HPL).
What stimulates smooth muscle contraction and ejection?
Do mammary glands develop differently in male and female children?
At puberty how do mammary glands develop in males?
THEY FAIL TO DEVELOP.
At puberty what causes mammary glands to develop in females?
How do mammary glands develop during puberty for females?
Alveolar glands & ducts enlarge and fat is deposited.