Flashcards in Chapter 24 - Respiratory System Deck (107):
Respiratory system consists of what?
Upper and lower respiratory systems.
What is the upper respiratory system?
Nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, and pharynx.
Functions of the upper respiratory system?
Filter, warm & humidify air and bring it to and from the lower respiratory system.
What is the lower respiratory system?
Larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.
What are alveoli?
Gas exchange surface.
What are the functions of the respiratory system?
Extensive area for gas exchange, move air to and from exchange surfaces, protect exchange surfaces from damage, produce vocalization, and regulate blood volume, pH, and pressure.
What damages does the respiratory system protect exchange surfaces from?
Dehydration, temperature, and pathogens.
How many functional parameters do respiratory surfaces have?
What are the 3 functional parameters of respiratory surfaces?
Increase the surface area of the membrane, decrease thickness of the respiratory membrane, and highly vascularize the respiratory membrane (maximize concentration gradient).
What is the external nose comprised of?
Cartilage, nasal bone, and external nares.
What are the cartilages of the external nose?
Lateral nasal, major alar, and minor alar.
What is another name for external nares?
What do the external nose enclose?
The nasal vestibule.
Nasal vestibule characteristics?
Protected by hairs, opens into nasal cavity, and divided by nasal septum.
Where does the nasal cavity start and end?
Starts at nasal vestibule and ends at internal nares.
How is the nasal cavity divided into 2?
By the nasal septum.
What comprises the nasal septum?
Ethmoid, vomer, and septal cartilage.
How is the nasal cavity separated from the oral cavity?
By the hard and soft palate?
What makes up the hard palate?
Palatine and maxilla.
What is the nasal cavity lined with?
What is the olfactory region of the nasal cavity?
Superior region and all areas with olfactory receptors.
What areas contain olfactory receptors?
Cribiform plate, superior nasal conchae, and superior septum.
What are nasal conchae?
Projections of bone on each side of nasal cavity.
What are the nasal conchae?
Superior, middle, and inferior.
What make up the conchae?
The ethmoid bone and inferior nasal concha bone.
What are the grooves in between conchae called?
What are the functions of conchae?
Divide cavity into passages, support mucous membranes, increase surface area, increase turbulence, and filter out airborne particles.
What are sinuses?
Air-filled sacs within cranial bones.
What are the sinuses?
Maxilla, frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid.
Where do sinuses open?
Into the nasal cavity.
What are sinuses lined with?
What are the functions of sinuses?
Decrease weight of skull, produce mucus, and resonant chambers.
What is another name for the pharynx?
Characteristics of the pharynx?
A shared passageway for respiratory and digestive system.
What are the 3 regions of the pharynx?
Nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx.
Location of nasopharynx?
Above uvula & posterior to internal nares.
Location of oropharynx?
Portion visible in mirror.
Location of laryngopharynx?
Between hyoid & esophagus.
Functions of the pharynx?
Passage for food, passage for air, and sound production.
What are the layers of the respiratory tree?
Mucosa, submucosa, hyaline cartilage, and trachealis muscle.
Goblet cells in pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.
Areolar CT and serous & mucous glands.
Trachealis muscle characteristics?
Transverse & longitudinal smooth muscle.
Is there more or less muscle as you move closer to the lungs?
IF YOU SAID LESS YOU ARE WRONG!!
What is the larynx?
Enlargement in airways at top of trachea & below pharynx.
Functions of the larynx?
Routes air & food to proper channels, surrounds & protects glottis, and houses vocal cords?
What is the glottis?
Opening into larynx.
What are vocal cords?
Folds in mucous membrane.
What are the 2 folds?
Vestibular and vocal folds.
Vestibular fold functions?
No sound production and muscles help close larynx during swallowing.
What is another name for the vestibular folds?
False vocal cords.
Vocal folds function?
Cause sound production.
Another name for vocal folds?
True vocal cords.
How does speaking occur?
Air is pushed past vocal folds causing vibrations.
How is pitch controlled?
Changing tension of cords.
Tight cords = Low or High pitch?
What is volume related to?
Force of air over cords.
More force = loud or quiet?
What change sound?
Oral cavity, lips & tongue.
Flexible tube and connects larynx with bronchi.
What is the composition of the trachea?
What composes the inner wall?
Ciliated mucous membrane with goblet cells and 20 C-shaped pieces of hyaline cartilage.
What are the functions of the ciliated mucous membrane?
Beat continuously and expel mucous loaded with debris.
What are the functions of the trachea?
Filter and direct incoming air, cartilage rings prevent collapsing (but are still flexible), and soft tissue in back allows esophagus to expand.
How are bronchi formed?
By division of the trachea.
Characteristics of bronchi.
Split at carina, enter lungs at hilus, and bronchi subdivide into smaller & smaller branches
What are the branches of the bronchi?
Primary, secondary, tertiary, and bronchioles.
Are the right and left bronchi the exact same?
OF COURSE NOT!
Right bronchus characteristics?
Wider, shorter, & straighter, divides into 3 parts (one per lobe), and the superior one divides very early.
How are bronchioles formed?
Branching of the tertiary bronchi.
How many terminal bronchioles are formed?
Are bronchioles smooth muscle or cartilage dominant?
What are the types of smooth muscle contractions in bronchioles?
Bronchodialation and bronchoconstriction.
What controls bronchodialation?
What controls bronchoconstriction?
What do terminal bronchioles branch into?
How many lobule per respiratory lobule?
What do respiratory lobules branch into?
What do alveolar ducts lead to?
Alveolar sacs contain what?
How many alveoli per lung?
Each is associated with a network of capillaries and abundance of elastic fibers.
Alveolus consist of what?
Pneumocyte type I & type II cells, basal lamina, capillary network, and connective tissue.
Pneumocyte type I characteristics?
Simple squamous epithelium for gas exchange and moist lining aids diffusion across respiratory membrane.
Pneumocyte type II characteristics?
No gas exchange and secrete pulmonary surfactant.
Pulmonary surfactant characteristics?
Fluid with a lower cohesive force than water, alveolar walls don't stick to each other, and prevents collapse of alveoli.
What are the connective tissues of alveolus?
Fibroblasts and macrophages.
Elastic and reticular fibers.
What do all of the structures in alveolus make for?
A thin and flexible membrane.
In thoracic cavity.
What is the lung surrounded by?
Parietal pleura and visceral pleura.
What is between the pleural layers?
Structure of the lungs?
Apex, base, hilus, lobes, and lobes divide into lobules.
What enter the hilus of the lungs?
All vessels and bronchi.
Number of lobes per side and what separate them?
Fissures separate them.
What des breathing depend on?
Volume changes in thoracic cavity.
Volume changes lead to what?
When pressure changes what occurs?
Gases flow to equalize pressure.
What are the 2 phases of breathing?
Inspiration and expiration.
Diaphragm & external intercostal muscles contract, thoracic cavity expands, pressure in pleural cavity decreases, lungs expand into lower pressure area, pressure in lungs decreases, air moves into lungs to equalize pressure.
Is expiration an active process?
I THINK NOT!
Muscles relax, recoil shrinks thoracic cavity, pressure in pleural cavity increases, lungs are compressed. pressure in lungs increase, and air moves out to equalize pressure.
What is another name for expiration?
Forced expiration steps?
Internal intercostals, external obliques, & abdominal recti muscles contract, further shrink thoracic cavity, pressure in pleural cavity increase, lungs are compressed, pressure in lungs increases, and air moves out to equalize pressure.
Steps of air entering body.
Mouth/nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, respiratory lobules, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli.