Chapter 20 - Blood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 20 - Blood Deck (115):
1

How many liters of blood are in a human?

5 liters.

2

Is blood a connective tissue?

OF COURSE IT IS KT.

3

What is another name for cells in blood?

Formed elements.

4

What is the matrix of blood?

Plasma.

5

What are the basic functions of blood?

Transport materials and help maintain stable cellular enviroment.

6

What materials does blood transport?

Nutrients, oxygen, metabolic wastes, and specialized cells that defend tissues.

7

What % of blood volume is plasma?

55%

8

What are the functions of blood plasma?

Transport nutrients, gases, & vitamins, regulate fluid & electrolytes, and maintain pH.

9

What is the composition of blood plasma?

92% water, 7 Proteins, and 1% solutes.

10

How does blood plasma differ from interstitial fluid?

Greater O2 concentration, reduced CO2 concentration, and significantly more dissolved proteins.

11

What are the proteins of blood plasma?

Albumin, globulins, and fibrinogens.

12

What percent of blood plasma proteins is albumin?

60%.

13

Albumin function?

Smallest, maintains osmotic pressure of blood, controls blood volume, and transports fatty materials in blood.

14

What types of fatty materials does albumin transport?

Bilirubin, steroids, and lipids.

15

What percent of blood plasma proteins is globulins?

35%.

16

What are the types globulins?

Immunoglobulins and transport globulins.

17

What are immunoglobulins?

Antibodies.

18

What are the functions of transport globulins?

Transport compounds by binding to them and prevent filtering by kidneys.

19

What percent of blood plasma proteins is fibrinogen?

4%.

20

What are the functions of fibrinogen?

Blood clotting.

21

What is plasma without plasma proteins?

Serum.

22

What are the solutes of blood plasma?

Waste, electrolytes, and organic nutrients.

23

What are the wastes of blood plasma?

Urea and ammonia.

24

What are the electrolytes of blood plasma?

Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, HCO3 -, HPO4 -, and SO4 2-.

25

What are the organic nutrients of blood plasma?

Lipids, glucose, and amino acids.

26

What are erythyrocytes?

Red blood cells.

27

What percent of blood are erythyrocytes?

40%.

28

What is the total amount of erythyrocytes known as?

The hematocrit.

29

What percentage of erythyrocytes are formed elements?

99.9%.

30

What is the structure of erythyrocytes?

Biconcave disks with: thin central region, thick outer region, large surface area/volume ratio.

31

Are erythyrocytes mononucleat, anucleate, or multinucleate?

Anucleate.

32

What does erythyrocytes being anucleat mean?

It lacks most organelles.

33

What does being anucleate allow the erythyrocyte to do?

Allows for pasage through capillaries, forms rouleaux (stacks of RBCs) and flexible.

34

How many hemoglobin molecules/cell?

280 million.

35

What percent of RBC proteins is hemoglobin?

95%.

36

What is the structure of hemoglobin?

4 polypeptide subunits, one heme group per polypeptide, and one iron (Fe) per heme group.

37

What are the functions of hemoglobin?

Each carries one O2 molecule, the reaction is easily reversed, and CO2 can also bind to hemoglobin.

38

What is hemoglobin bonded with oxygen called and its color?

Oxyhemoglobin and bright red.

39

What is hemoglobin called after it is unbound from oxygen and color?

Deoxyhemoglobin and deep red/maroon.

40

What is hemoglobin bonded with CO2 called?

Carbaminohemoglobin.

41

What percent of blood CO2 does carbaminohemoglobin account for?

23%.

42

What are leukocytes?

White blood cells.

43

What are the functions of leukocytes?

Defend against pathogens and remove toxins, wastes, & damaged cells.

44

Do leukocytes function in the circulatory system?

WHY WOULD THEY KIDDO?

45

Where do leukocytes move from and to?

From blood vessels into tissues.

46

What is diapedesis?

Squeeing out of the BV's and going to different tissues.

47

What are the 2 classifications of leukocytes?

Granulocytes and agranulocytes.

48

Characteristics of granulocytes?

Granular inclusions in cytoplasm.

49

Characteristics of agranulocytes?

No visible granules.

50

What are the types of granulocytes?

Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.

51

What percent of WBCs are neutrophils?

60%.

52

Characteristics of neutrophils?

Lobed nucleus and very mobile.

53

Functions of neutrophils?

1st defense against microorganisms, phagocytic, and attract more neutrophils.

54

What percent of WBCs are eosinophils?

2-4%.

55

Characteristics of eosinophils?

Bi-lobed nucleus and red granules.

56

Functions of eosinophils?

Attracted to injuries, phagocytize compounds bonded with antibodies, and increase during allergic reactions.

57

What percent of WBCs are basophils?

1%.

58

Characteristics of basophils?

S-shaped nucleus and blue granules.

59

Functions of basophils?

Release anticoagulants and release histamine (causes inflammatory response and attracts other WBCs).

60

What are the types of agranulocytes?

Monocytes and lymphocytes.

61

What percent of WBCs are monocytes?

2-8%.

62

Characteristics of monocytes?

Largest cells in blood.

63

Functions of monocytes?

Recruit mre monocytes, attarct fibroblasts, and pahgocytize foreign material (fuse to form osteoclasts and form free and fixed macrophages).

64

What percent of WBCs are lymphocytes?

20-30%.

65

Characteristics of lymphocytes?

Mature in lymph organs, smallest, and non-phagocytic.

66

Functions of lymphocytes?

Specific immunity: focuse on a single pathogen, produce antibodies, and destroy abnormal tissue.

67

What are the types of lymphocytes?

T-cells, B-cells, and NK cells.

68

What do T-cells do?

Attack foreign cells directly.

69

What do B-cells do?

Differentiate into plasmocytes that produce antibodies.

70

What do NK cells do?

Immune surveillance and destruction of abnormal cells such as cancer cells.

71

What are thrombocytes?

Platelets.

72

What are platelets made of?

Smalle, anucleate cell fragments.

73

Where do platelets come from?

Megakaryocytes.

74

What do platelets do?

Produce proteins for blood clotting.

75

How long do platelets last?

About 10-12 days.

76

What is blood clotting called?

Hemostasis.

77

What does the formation of a clot involve?

Transport of important clotting agents, formations of a temporary patch and clot contraction.

78

What is hemopoiesis?

All blood cells are derived from a pluripotent stem cell.

79

What cells are not derived from the resulting myeloid tissue?

Lymphocytes.

80

Where are all new blood cells produced in adults?

Bone marrow.

81

What is blood?

Hi beautiful you probably did not get this answer exactly right but that is ok. I just wanted to leave a little surprise for you to see at some point. You have absolutely how much I LOVE YOU!!! you mean the world to me and when I am with you nothing else matters to me!!!! I am pretty sure time stops when I am holding you in my arms and I love it!! Until my next surprise bebe I love you mwahhhh mwahhhh!! Now quit procrastinating and continue to study.

82

In utero what help make blood cells?

Liver and spleen.

83

What is erythyropoiesis?

The formation of RBCs.

84

Do RBCs have a nucleus or mitochondria?

NOT AT ALL CONNOOOOR.

85

Do RBCs repair?

Nope just a little bit of wear and tear without repair.

86

How long do RBCs last?

120 days.

87

What percent of RBCs are replaced per day?

About 1%.

88

How many RBCs are replaced per secons?

3 million.

89

What is leukopoiesis?

The formation of WBCs.

90

Where do granulocytes complete their development?

Red marrow.

91

How long do neutrophils last?

12 hours and die after they engulf an object.

92

When do monocytes complete development?

When they exit the circulatory system.

93

Where do immature lymphocytes go?

Bone marrow and thymus.

94

Where do lymphocytes mature?

Spleen, tonsils, or lymph nodes.

95

How long can lymphocytes last?

For several years.

96

RBC plasmalemma has what?

Surface antigens.

97

What are antigens?

Usually glycoproteins or glycolipids.

98

How is blood type determined?

By genetics.

99

What determine your blod type?

A,B, and Rh.

100

What antigens can people have?

A, B, AB, or none.

101

What do you produce antibodies for?

All antigens you do not have.

102

What happens when foreign antigens are introduced into your bloodstream?

You produce antibodies to destroy them.

103

What type of blood can AB patients receive?

Any blood

104

What type of blood can A patients receive?

A or O, and produces B antibodies.

105

What type of blood can B patients receive?

B or O, and produce A antibodies.

106

What type of blood can O patients receive?

Only O, produce both A and B antibodies.

107

What is the Rh group named after?

Rhesus macaque.

108

Reasons why you love KT???

There are way too many reasons to put on this flashcard silly! You just do, so accept it and give her a kiss

109

If you have Rh antigen you are?

Rh+.

110

If you have no antigen you are?

Rh-.

111

What is the Rh antigen somtimes referred as?

The D antigen.

112

When do Rh- people produce antibodies?

Only when exposed to the Rh antigen.

113

When does this usually occur?

When someone receives and Rh+ transfusion or pregnant with Rh+ baby.

114

What happens when an Rh- mother is pregnant with a second Rh+ baby?

The Rh- mother may reject the Rh+ baby.

115

Hi Katie!!!!!

I love you!!!!