Care of Patients with Vascular Problems Flashcards Preview

Nursing 202 > Care of Patients with Vascular Problems > Flashcards

Flashcards in Care of Patients with Vascular Problems Deck (59)
Loading flashcards...
1

Arteriosclerosis:

thickening, hardening of the arterial wall that is often associated with aging

2

Atherosclerosis:

type of arteriosclerosis, involves the formation of plaque w/in the arterial wall and is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease

3

Palpate each carotid artery separately to

prevent blocking blood flow to the brain

4

What indicates hypertriglyceridemia?

level of 160 mg/dL or above in men
Women should have level below 135

5

Recommendations for nutrition: Arteriosclerosis

Intakes of veggies, fruits, whole grains
Consume low-fat dairy products, poultry, fish, legumes, nontropical vegetable oils, and nuts
Limit intake of sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and red meats
5% to 6% of calories from saturated fat
Reduce trans fat

6

Physical activity Arteriosclerosis

3-4 X a week

7

Drug therapy: Arteriosclerosis

3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors = reduce cholesterol

8

Complementary therapies: Arteriosclerosis

Nicotine acid or niacin
B vitamin
lower LDL-C
very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)
Increase HDL-C levels

9

4 control systems play a major role in maintaining BP:

Arterial baroreceptor system
Regulation of body fluid volume
The renin angiotensin aldosterone system
Vascular autoregulation

10

Found primarily in the carotid sinus, aorta, and wall of the left ventricle

arterial baroreceptors

11

Changes in fluid volume also affects the

systemic arterial pressure

12

Keeps perfusion in the body relatively constant, appears to be important in causing hypertension

Vascular autoregulation

13

the most common type of hypertension and is not caused by existing health problem

Essential (primary)

14

Primary hypertension results in

damage to vital organs by causing medial hyperplasia of the arterioles

15

Secondary hypertension=

specific disease states and drugs can increase person's susceptibility to this

16

a severe type of elevated BP that rapidly progresses

Malignant hypertension

17

symptoms of malignant hypertension =

morning headaches, blurred vision, and dyspnea and/or symptoms of uremia (accumulation in the blood of substances ordinarily eliminated in the urine)

Diastolic pressure is greater than 150 mm Hg or greater than 130

18

Etiology and genetic risk =

Kidney disease: renal artery stenosis (RAS)
Primary aldosteronism
Pheochromocytomas
Cushing's syndrome
Drugs

19

Adrenal mediated hypertension is due to

primary excesses of aldosterone

20

Primary aldosteronism, excessive aldosterone causes

hypertension and hypokalemia

21

Pheochromocytomas:

tumors that originate most commonly in the adrenal medulla and result in excessive secretion of catecholamines

22

Cushing's syndrome:

excessive glucocorticoids are excreted from the adrenal cortex

23

Drugs that cause secondary hypertension

estrogen
glucocorticoids
mineralocorticoids
sympathomimetics
cyclosporine
erythropoietin

24

Manifestation of hypertension:

headaches
facial flushing
dizziness
fainting

25

Expected outcomes for hypertension:

Verbalize his or her individualized plan of care for hypertension
Expected to adhere to the plan of care, including making necessary lifestyle changes

26

Interventions: Lifestyle changes for hypertension

Restrict sodium intake
Reduce weight
Use alcohol sparingly
Exercise 3-4 X a week
Use relaxation techniques to reduce stress
Avoid tobacco and caffeine

27

Other Interventions: for hypertension

Complementary therapies: garlic and coenzyme Q10
Drug therapy: antihypertensives, Lipid-lowering treatment, diuretics (1st defense), calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, aldosterone receptor antagonists, beta blockers, renin inhibitors

28

hypertensive crisis:

severe elevation in BP (greater than 180/120) can cause organ damage in kidneys and heart

29

Peripheral vascular disease (PVD):

disorders that change the natural flow of blood through the arteries through the arteries and veins of peripheral circulation, causing decreased perfusion to body tissues

Implies more arterial than venous

30

PAD results of

systemic atherosclerosis: partial or total arterial occlusion, decreases perfusion in lower extremities