Inflammation and Immunity Flashcards Preview

Nursing 202 > Inflammation and Immunity > Flashcards

Flashcards in Inflammation and Immunity Deck (29)
1

Self versus non self proteins

Non self: infected body cells, cancer cells, cells from other people, and invading organisms
Self: immune system cells

2

Self tolerance:

recognizing self vs non self to prevent healthy cells from being destroyed

3

Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs):

surface proteins that are specific to that person

4

Antigens:

proteins capable of stimulating an immune response

5

Immunity changes due to a person's

nutritional status

6

The bone marrow products immature undifferentiated cells called

stem cells

7

3 processes needed for human protection through immunity:

1. Inflammation
2. Antibody mediated immunity (AMI)
3. Cell-mediated immunity (CMI)

8

Inflammation differs from AMI and CMI in 2 ways:

1. Inflammation protection is immediate but short term - does not provide true immunity
2. Is a nonspecific body defense to invasion or injury and can be started quickly by almost any event

9

Inflammation can occur without

infection

10

Neutrophils:

55%
Mature cells are capable of phagocytosis
Nonspecific protection against organisms

11

Absolute neutrophil count ANC:

measures a patient's risk for infection: the higher the number, the greater resistance to infection

12

left shift or bandemia:

the segmented neutrophil (far right) is no longer the most numerous type of circulating neutrophils

13

Macrophages:

Located mainly: in the liver, spleen, and intestinal tract
-Immediate imflammatory response and also stimulate the longer-lasting immune responses of AMI and CMI
Functions: phagocytosis, repair, antigen presenting/processing, and secretion of cytokines for immune system control

14

Basophils:

1%
Acts on blood vessels with basophil chemicals which include heparin, histamine, serotonin, kinins, and leukotrienes
-Immunoglobulin E
Functions: stimulates both general inflammation and inflammation of allergy and hypersensitivity reactions

15

Eosinophils:

1-2%
Functions: very active against infestations of parasitic larvae and also limits inflammatory reactions
-allergic response

16

Tissue mast cells:

Come from different parent cell than leukocytes and do not circulate as mature cells
-Important roles in maintaining and prolonging inflammatory and hypersensitivity reactions

17

Phagocytosis:

the engulfing and destruction of invaders,which also rids the body of debris after tissue injury

18

5 cardinal manifestations of inflammation:

Warmth
Redness
Swelling
Pain
Decreased function
-timing might overlap

19

3 stage sequence of inflammation: Stage 1

The vascular part of the inflammatory response that first involves changes in blood vessels
-Blood flow to the area increases (hyperemia) and swelling (edema) forms at the site of injury

20

3 stage sequence of inflammation: Stage 2

The cellular exudate part of the response
Neutrophilia occurs (increased number of circulating neutrophils)

21

3 stage sequence of inflammation: Stage 3

Features tissue repair and replacement
Completed last but begins at the time of the injury

22

7 steps of phagocytosis:

1. Exposure and invasion
2. Attraction
3. Adherence
4. Recognition
5. Cellular ingestion
6. Phagosome formation
7. Degradation

23

1. Exposure and invasion:

the body is invaded and leukocytes are present

24

2. Attraction

WBCs come in direct contact with target
damaged tissues secret chemotaxins and they bring neutrophils and macrophages

25

3. Adherence

Allow phagocytic cell to bind to the surface of the target

26

4. Recognition

when the phagocytic cell sticks to the target cell and recognizes it as non self

27

5. Cellular ingestion

phagocytic destruction occurs inside cell

28

6. Phagosome formation

phagocyte's granules break and release enzymes that attack the ingested target

29

7. Degradation

enzymes in phagosome digest the engulfed target