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Nursing 202 > Sleep > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sleep Deck (35)
1

Circadian rhythms
Affected by.

light, temperature, social activities, and work routines

2

Hospitals and extended care facilities usually do not

adapt care to an individual’s sleep-wake cycle preferences.

3

The biological rhythm of sleep frequently becomes

synchronized with other body functions

4

common symptoms of sleep cycle disturbances.

Anxiety, restlessness, irritability, and impaired judgment

5

Physiology of Sleep: Sleep Regulation RAS and BSR:

Integrated by central nervous system (CNS) activity:
-Hypothalamus
-Reticular activating system (RAS)
-Bulbar synchronizing region (BSR)

6

Purpose of sleep:

Remains unclear
Physiological and psychological restoration
NREM – body tissue restoration
REM – brain tissue & cognitive restoration
Loss of REM – confusion & suspicion

7

Dreams:

Occur during NREM & REM
REM sleep – vivid & elaborate
Important for learning, memory, and adaptation to stress

8

Physical illness can cause

pain, physical discomfort, anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances

9

Physical illness include:

Hypertension
Respiratory disorders
Nocturia
Pain
Restless leg syndrome (RLS)

10

Hypersomnolence =

Excessive sleepiness

11

A polysomnogram involves

the use of electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), and electro-oculography (EOG) to monitor stages of sleep and wakefulness during nighttime sleep.

12

Sleep hygiene =

Practices that a patient associates with sleep

13

Cataplexy is

sudden muscle weakness during intense emotions such as anger, sadness, or laughter; it can occur at any time during the day.

14

Sleep paralysis is

the feeling of being unable to move or talk just before waking or falling asleep.

15

Insomnia

Adjustment sleep disorder (acute insomnia), Inadequate sleep hygiene, Behavioral insomnia of childhood, Insomnia caused by medical condition

16

Sleep apnea

Primary central sleep apnea, Central sleep apnea caused by medical condition, Obstructive sleep apnea syndromes, Excessive daytime sleepiness
-lack of airflow through the nose and mouth for periods of 10 seconds or longer during sleep

17

Narcolepsy

Cataplexy, Sleep paralysis
Dysfunction of regulating sleep and wake states - excessive sleepiness is the most common complaint

18

Sleep deprivation

Causes by Emotional stress, Medications, Environmental disturbances
Symptoms: fever, difficulty breathing, pain

19

Parasomnias

More common in children
Somnambulism (sleepwalking), Night terrors, Nightmares, Nocturnal enuresis (bed-wetting), Body rocking, Bruxism

20

Physical illness


Hypertension, respiratory, musculoskeletal, chronic illness, GI, nausea

21

Drugs and substances

Hypnotics, diuretics, narcotics, antidepressants, alcohol, caffeine, beta-blockers, anticonvulsants

22

Lifestyle


Work schedule, social activities, routines

23

Usual sleep patterns

May be disrupted by social activity or work schedule

24

Emotional stress

Worries, physical health, death, losses

25

Environment

Noise, routines

26

Exercise and fatigue

Moderate exercise and fatigue cause a restful sleep

27

Food and calorie intake

Time of day, caffeine, nicotine, alcohol

28

Sleep assessment

Sources for sleep assessment = Patient, family
Tools for sleep assessment = Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index

29

Sleep history:


Description of sleeping problems
usual sleep pattern
current life events
physical and psychological illness
emotional and mental status
bedtime routines, bedtime environment
behaviors of sleep deprivation

30

Goal:

The patient will control environmental sources disrupting sleep within 1 month

31

Outcomes:


Patient will identify factors in the immediate home environment that disrupt sleep in 2 weeks.
Patient will report having a discussion with family members about environmental barriers to sleep in 2 weeks.
Patient will report changes made in the bedroom to promote sleep within 4 weeks.
Patient will report having fewer than two awakenings per night within 4 weeks.

32

Health promotion:


Environmental controls
Promoting bedtime routines
Promoting safety
Promoting comfort
Establishing periods of rest and sleep
Stress reduction
Bedtime snacks
Pharmacological approaches

33

Acute care:


Environmental controls
Promoting comfort
Establishing periods of rest and sleep
Promoting safety
Stress reduction

34

Restorative or continuing care

Promoting comfort
Controlling physiological disturbances
Pharmacological approaches

35

Determine whether expected outcomes have been met.

Are you able to fall asleep within 20 minutes of getting into bed?
Describe how well you sleep when you exercise.
Does the use of quiet music at bedtime help you to relax?
Do you feel rested when you wake up?