Care of Patients with Infectious Respiratory Problems Flashcards Preview

Nursing 202 > Care of Patients with Infectious Respiratory Problems > Flashcards

Flashcards in Care of Patients with Infectious Respiratory Problems Deck (43)
Loading flashcards...
1

Rhinitis:

Inflammation of nasal mucosa
“Hay fever” or “allergies”

2

Manifestations- allergic rhinitis

Headache
Nasal irritation and congestion
Sneezing and rhinorrhea

3

Manifestations – viral / bacterial rhinitis

Same as allergic rhinitis
Also systemic – sore/ dry throat, low-grade fever, malaise

4

Interventions of Rhinitis

Antihistamines, leukotriene inhibitors, mast cell stabilizers
Decongestants
Antipyretics
Antibiotics
Supportive therapy
Complementary and alternative therapy – vitamin C, zinc

5

Sinusitis:

Inflammation of sinus mucous membranes
Usually caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Diplococcus, Bacteroides

6

Manifestations of Sinusitis:

Pain
Purulent nasal drainage
Fever
Erythema
Swelling
Fatigue
Dental pain
Ear pressure

7

Nonsurgical management of Sinusitis:

Broad-spectrum antibiotics
Analgesics (pain and fever)
Decongestants
Steam humidification
Hot/wet packs over sinus area
Nasal saline irrigations
Increased fluids

8

Pharyngitis:

Sore throat is common inflammation of pharyngeal mucous membranes
Odynophagia, dysphagia, fever, hyperemia
Viral versus Bacterial

9

Strep throat can lead to serious medical complications!

Screen with Rapid Antigen Test (RAT)
Results in 15 minutes
-Epiglottitis is rare complication

10

Tonsillitis :

Inflammation/infection of tonsils and lymphatic tissues
Contagious airborne infection, usually bacterial
Antibiotics for 7-10 days
Surgical intervention

11

Peritonsillar Abscess (PTA)

-Complication of acute tonsillitis
-Manifestations:
Pus causing one-sided swelling with deviation of the uvula
Trismus and difficulty breathing
Bad breath, swollen lymph nodes

12

Peritonsillar Abscess (PTA): Treatment

Percutaneous needle aspiration of abscess
Antibiotics

13

Laryngitis

Inflammation of mucous membranes lining the larynx; possible edema of vocal cords

14

Signs & symptoms of Laryngitis:

Acute hoarseness, dry cough, difficulty swallowing, temporary voice loss (aphonia)

15

Laryngitis Treatment focused on relief and prevention:

Voice rest, steam inhalation, increased fluid intake, throat lozenges
Reduce use of tobacco and alcohol

16

Influenza

Highly contagious acute viral respiratory infection

17

Influenza Signs& Symptoms

Severe headache, muscle ache, fever, chills, fatigue, weakness, anorexia

18

Influenza: Vaccination is advisable
Who?

People older 50 yearly vaccines because they are at risk

19

Influenza: Antiviral agents may be effective if

started within 24-48 hours of symptoms

20

Pandemic Influenza:

“Spanish Influenza”
Mostly prevalent among animals and birds; virus can mutate, becoming infectious to humans
Example: H1N1 (swine flu)

21

Pandemic Influenza: Treatment

Strict isolation precautions
Antiviral drugs
-Oseltamivir (Tamiflu), zanamivir (Relenza)

22

Pneumonia:

-Excess fluid in lungs resulting from inflammatory process
-Inflammation triggered by infectious organisms, inhalation of irritants
-Inflammation occurs in interstitial spaces, alveoli
-WBC’s to infection site

23

Pneumonia S&S:

Reduces gas exchange, leads to hypoxia
Septicemia
Atelectasis- alveolar collapse

24

Risk for Pneumonia:

Community-acquired infectious pneumonia
Nosocomial or Health care-acquired

25

Pneumonia: Community-acquired infectious pneumonia:

Older adult; never received vaccine or >5 years
Did not receive influenza previous year
Chronic health problems
Exposure to influenza or respiratory viral
Tobacco use/ secondhand, alcohol

26

Pneumonia: Nosocomial

Older adult, chronic lung disease
Gram-negative colonization (mouth, throat, stomach)
Altered LOC, recent aspiration, poor nutrition
Presence of ET tube, NG, Trach
Immunocompromised, mechanical ventilation (VAP)

27

Clinical Manifestations of Pneumonia:

Increased respiratory rate- dehydration
Dyspnea
Hypoxemia
Cough
Purulent
Vital signs
Lung sounds
Myalgia
Tripod position

28

Interventions of Pneumonia:

Hand washing
Sterile water for NG
Aspiration precautions
Oxygen
Incentive spirometry
Smoking education

29

Lab assessments for Pneumonia:

Gram stain, culture and sensitivity of sputum
CBC
ABGs
Serum BUN
Electrolytes
Creatinine

30

Imaging & Diagnostic Assessment fir Pneumonia:

Chest x-ray
Pulse oximetry
Transtracheal aspiration
Bronchoscopy

31

Pneumonia: Community-Based Care

Home care management
Teaching for self-management
Health care resources
Prevention
-Immunization of appropriate persons

32

Pulmonary Tuberculosis:

Highly communicable; caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Transmitted via aerosolization
Secondary TB
Increased incidence secondary to HIV infection

33

Manifestation of TB

Progressive fatigue
Lethargy
Nausea
Anorexia
Weight loss
Irregular menses
Low-grade fever, night sweats
Cough, mucopurulent sputum, blood streaks

34

Diagnostic assessment of TB:

Manifestation of signs/symptoms
NAA (Nucleic acid amplification) test (results in 2 hr)
Sputum smear for acid-fast bacillus
Sputum culture confirms it
Tuberculin (Mantoux) test – PPD (Purified Protein derivative) given intradermally in forearm: if +, then chest x-ray
Induration of 10 mm or greater diameter = Positive for exposure

35

PPD Skin test

Positive reaction does not mean that active disease is present, but does indicate exposure to TB or dormant disease

36

Interventions of TB:

Combination drug therapy with strict adherence:
Isoniazid
Rifampin
Pyrazinamide
Ethambutol
Negative sputum culture = No longer infectious

37

Notes on TB medications

INH- empty stomach, avoid ETOH, dark urine yellow skin = liver toxicity
Rifampin – red/ orange urine, additional contraceptive, ETOH, liver toxicity
PZA – water, sunscreen, ETOH, liver toxicity
EMB – ETOH, vision changes, water

38

Pertussis:

Respiratory infection – Bordetella pertussis
Contagious, respiratory droplets
Childhood to adult

39

When Pertussis occurs:

Catarrhal stage- Common cold- mild cough
Paroxysmal- Severe coughing ‘fits’- “whooping” cough
Recovery - Can last for months

40

Diagnosis for Pertussis

Sputum cultures

41

Greatest risk for developing TB:

contact with untreated, HIV, crowded areas prisoners, shelters, mental health, homeless, drug abusers, lower socioeconomic, foreign

42

TB is the most common

-bacterial infection
2nd TB reactivated when defenses lowered especially older adults or HIV
Acid-base bacilli AFB

43

Active TB transmitted by

cough, laugh, sneeze, whistle, sings= droplets are airborne