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Flashcards in Cartilage Deck (29):
0

Chondroblast vacuoles contain?

Lipid and glycogen

1

Ground substance in cartilage? 4

Proteoglycans 40% of dry weight
Glycoproteins
Lipids
Water 80-90% of total weight

2

Function of chrondroblasts?

Synthesise and destroy ECM

3

Contents of ECM?

Fibrillary component and ground substance
Avascular, a-neural
Surrounded by perichondrium (except hyaline cartilage - articular surface)

4

Functions of cartilage?

Embryo bone formation
Growth of long bones (metaphyseal cartilage)
Articular surface - reduce friction
Shock absorb - bear stress

5

Where is metaphysis

Between epiphysis and diaphysis (shaft)

6

Cells of cartilage?

Chondroblasts - located in perichondrium. Active nucleus. Vacuoles containing lipid + glycogen.

Chondrocytes - mature cell, lacunae, isogenous groups, deeper into cartilage more globular

Fibroblasts - outer layer of perichondrium

7

Cartilage ECM (fibres and ground substance)

Fibres: type 2 collagen(50% of dry weight)
Ground substance: proteoglycans, glycoproteins, lipids, water

Also type 1 collagen and elastic fibres (elastic cartilage)

8

Proteoglycan structure?

Core protein linked to many GAGs

9

Proteoglycan aggregates?

Hyaluronic acid central molecule.
Core proteins of proteoglycans attached via linker proteins

10

Perichrondrium contains? And extra facts?

Fibroblasts, Chondroblasts, Nerve, blood, lymphatic supply.
Not in articular cartilage
Req for cartilage healing
Is made of DCT

11

Perichondrium inner layer

Chondrogenic layer
Chondrocytes present

12

2 methods of cartilage growth?
Synthesised by?
What is synthesised?

Interstitial - only during development of tissue
Appositional
Mesenchymal cells -> Chondroblasts
Synthesise M of cartilage - proteoglycans, gags, chondronectin, collagen, elastic fibres

13

Appositional growth (3)

Perichondrium inner layer - differentiate - ecm components
New fibroblasts produced - maintain pop of perichondrium
After birth perichondrium not produced chondroblast

14

Interstitial growth? (3)

Partition formed between daughter cells
Chondrocytes within lacunae - mitosis + secrete ecm + move apart as secrete

15

Formation of joint cartilage?

Articular cartilage, no perichondrium, no appositional growth.

Only interstitial

16

Cartilage (inter)territorial matrix

Territorial matrix - darker stain - gags + proteoglycans

17

Stain for elastin fibres?
Stain for proteoglycans?

Weigert stain
PAS stain

18

Cartilage function and how? (3)

Bear mechanical stress - proteoglycans - bind to water - absorb compressive forces
No perm distortion - resist tensile forces
Collagen compression similar to iron

19

Cartilage classification. Hyaline and where found?

Type 2 collagen
Isogenous groups
Amorphous no fibre matrix

Bronchi, larynx, pharynx, articular surface, nose, trachea, ribs ventral ends, bone formation

20

Cartilage classification. Elastic and where found?

Elastin fibres - resist repeated bending. Use weigert stain.
Compared to hyaline - isogenous groups closer - fewer and smaller
Elastic fibres in all directiom

Pinna of ear, external ear, epiglottis, auditory tube

21

Cartilage classification. Fibrocartilage and where found
.

Both collagen type one and type 2.
White heterogenous appearance.
Intermediate between hyaline and dct.

Pubic symphysis, knee meniscus, intervertebral disk

22

Cartilage ageing (2)

Abnormal collagen fibres increase - unstable - destroyed - cavities form - asbestiform degeneration
Decrease in proteoglycans - decrease water - less efficient absorption of nutrients and hormones + effects resistance

23

Hyaline cartilage extra 3 points?

Supports respiratory system, forms fetal skeleton, glassy scare collagen fibres

24

Hyaline cartilage 3 zones and different size of chondrocytes
Also what are collagen fibres linked to and how does this help?

Tangential - ovoid singular - t2 col bundles
Int. - globular singular - oblique col firils
Central - groups globular

COL fibres linked to proteoglycans - bear mechanical pressure and forces

25

Arthritis and 4 symptoms

Degen joint disease - injury and ageing of articular cart.

Pain, stiffness, bone destruction, joint deformation, reduction of movement

26

articular lips (3)

Inserted onto joins
Increase cavity
Increase maintenance of joint

27

Fibrocartilage on intervertebral disk

Annulus fibrosus - concentric fibrocartilage

Nucleus pulposus - water and choroid tissue - scare ecm - abundant t1 col.

28

Osteopontin functions

Anti apoptosis to inflammatory cells
Heart - apoptosis in some myocardia. Cells
Bone remodellingNegative charged therefore bond to ca - effect moneralisation
Attach to osteoclast - effect attachment to bone matrix