Flashcards in 2.5 Urinary System Deck (75):
Function of urinary system (3)
Maintenance of water, electrocytes and acid/base of blood
Excretion of waste products
Hormonal: renin(control bp), erythropoietin(rbc), vit D(control calcium)
Where does filtration of water and low molec substances occur?
What does the renal corpuscle consist of?
Glomerus and bowman's capsule
Where selective reabsorption of h2o and molecules except waste
And h+ secretion occur?
From blood into tubules there is?
secretion of excretory products
Glomerular filtrate and urine production rates?
120ml / min
1ml / min
-The kidney is a .... Organ.
Surrounded by (2)
12, 6.5, 3
Fibrous capsules, perinephric fat
Areas of kidney
Renal capsule, cortex, pyramids, sinus, papillae, major/minor calyces, renal pelvis. Renal columns
What is the cribiform area in the kidneys?
Opening of papillary ducts
Urinary tract (5)
Major and minor calycyes
Urethra in males and female
Males - organ of urinary + reproductive system
Females - short
Kidney main location (vetebrae) and position with respect to peritoneum?
Extra Peritoneal - surrounded by fascia and adipose (hilium of kidney)
Kidney function main (3)
Maintenance of water, electrolytes and acid/base homeostasis
Excretion of waste products (urea, uric acid)
Hormonal and met functions (3)
Kidney hormonal functions (3)
Renin - raas pathway
Erythropoietin - ++ rbc
Vit D - ca balance
Renal sinus contains?
How many pyramids and nephrons per kidney
8 and 1m
Nephron = functional unit
Nephron involved in?
Filtration of blood and modifying filtration (absorption and reabsorption)
Structure of kidney - weight, l, w, h and surrounded by?
Fibrous capsule - surrounded by perinephric fat
Structure and vascularisation of kidney tightly related
Aorta - renal arteries - 5x segmental art- interlobar art - interlobular art - arcuate art
Interlobular art -> afferent art -> glomerus -> efferent arteriole
Surface of kidney..
During pathological situation color....
Cortex and percentage of nephrons?
Renal lobe contains
Cortex and medulla
Renal lobule also called?
2 interlobular artery surround by medullary rays
Also called cortical lobule
Glomeruli only found in?
And when this contains no glomeruli?
Arcuate artery ->
Vasa recta in medulla and cortex
Nephron and capp
Bowmans capsule also named?
JM = juxtaglomrular
Jm - loop of henle in medulla, longer nephron, more efficient conc of urine
Renal papillae (2)
Projects into pelvicalyceal space
Opening large straight ducts into crib-rated area
How much CO cardiac output into kidney in one day?
4 main steps in urine production - frsc
Reabsorption and secretion by tubules
Concentration by removal of water
Kidney cortex contains? (3)
Medullary rays : straight tubules + collecting tubules
Pyramids : straight tubules and collecting ducts
Uniferous pole and what type of cells?
Glomerular filtrate to prox convu tubules
Bowmans capsules 2 layers
Parietal - simple squamous
Visceral - podocytes
Glomerular capp are?
Fenestrated with cont basement membrane/lamina
Filtration membrane contains? (5)
Foot process of podocyte and fenestrations
Capsular space filtrate
Renin - angiotensinogen -> angiotensin 1 -> 2 - aldesterone
Increase na reabsorption -> water reabsorption increase bp.
Stim by low bp and nerve impulses during stress
Angiotensin 2 (4)
Vasopressin rel by pituitary gland
Adrenal gland rel - adrenaline(+nor), aldesterone
Calyces and pelvis height
Ureter 3 constrictions
Pelvic inlet - common iliac art split into int and external
Entrance to bladder
Ureter active role in
Transport of urine and ant to comm iliac art and vein
Post of bladder
Ureter, vas deferens, seminal vesicle, musuclar post of bladder, prostate
Bladder sup view of inf wall?
Internal uretral meatus
Urinary bladder holds how much urine!
250ml - 300ml
What delimits orifice?
Bladder fills - intramural portion of bladder = compressed
Orifice delimited by mucosal fold (ureter valve)
Urethra in male and female
F - smaller - paraurethral - skere's gland
M - 4 parts - preprostatic, prostatic, membraneous, spongy
Glands of litre - secrete mucus (colloid, gags) -> protect epithelium against urine.
Age related kidney fibrosis
Fibroblasts -> increase collagen production (type 1 and 4 & fibronectin)
Renal corpuscle : epithelium, major functions, summary (EMS)
E simple squamous - bowmans capsule. Visceral and parietal layer.
M filter blood
S endothelial cells, fused basal lamina, podocyte processes (fenestratiojs in between - pedicles
Proximal convoluted tubule : EMS
Epi - simple squamous
Major func-reabsorb all proteins, glucose and aa.
80% of all Na, water and cl ion
Sum - na pumps - remove na - water follows - maintain isotonicity with blood
Loop of henle thick decending lim. EMS
E- simple cuboidal - brush border
M - same of pct
S - same as pct
EMS : loop of henle - thin decending limb
E simple squamous
M water exits na and cl enter
S blood respect hypertonic
urea also enters lumen of tubule
Loop of henle - thin ascending limb ems
E simple squamous
M somewhat permeable to water - enter ultra-filtrate. Na and cl exit
S - blood respect hypertonic
urea enter lumen of tubule
Loop of henle - thick ascending limb ems
E simple cuobidal with mito
M - impermeable to water. Cl active transport out. Na follows.
S - ultrafiltrate = hypotonic
JG apparatus - macula densa ems
Simple cuboidal cells
M monitor level of na in ultrafiltrate distal tubule
S gap junction - communicate with jg cells in efferent arteriole
Jg cells afferent arteriole ems
E modded sm cel,s - renin granules
M syn renin, release into bloodstream
S act on plasma cells - angiotensin 2 stim adrenal cortex -> aldosterone (acts on distal convoluted tubule).
Distal convuluted tubule ems
E Simple cuboidal - compartmentalised mito.
M - adesterone - cells remove na .
S Hypotonic. K, nh4, h, enter lumen
Collecting ducts ems
Simple cuboidal and columnar
M presence of adh permeable to water. Removed from filtrate. Hypertonic urine.
S absense impermeabble to water. Hypotonic urine.
Excretory passages- which contain transitional epithelium
Major minor calyces
Male prostatic urethra
Excretory passages - which contains pseudostratified or strat columnar
Male membraneous and cavernous urethra (until navicula fossa -> strat squamous)
Excretory passages - LP contain reticular, elastic fibres?
Major minor calyces
And ureter (also contain collagen)
Which excretory passages contain glands of litre
Male prostatic & membranous (few) cavernosus (many)
Ureter muscularis and how it conducts urine?
Inner longi, outer circ
Active conducts - peristalsis
Muscularis for calyces, pelvis, ureter(3rd additional), urinary bladder (poorly defined 3), urethra fem, prostatic urethra male
Inner longi, outer circ of sm.
Ureter and urinary bladder (poorly defined) - 3rd outermost longi
Urethra male - muscularis - membranous, cavernous
Membranous - striated - ext sphinter
Cavernous - few sm with elastic fibres
Mesangium cells and juxtaglomerular cells derived from?
Smooth muscle cell precursor
Mesangium cells function PSSM
Modulate glomerular distension - response to high bp
Macular densa different from other juxtaglomerular cells?
Req special stains, nuclei partially superimposed over each other, taller
Smooth muscle of bladder wall forms?
Opening of urethra these form?
What arrangement around this?
Arrangement of sm in this muscle?
Internal urethral sprincter with ring like arrangement
Sm bundles less regular than tubular portion of excretory passages -> mixed with collagen bundles
What muscle contracts -> urine into urethra?
Detrusor muscle of bladder
Bladder innervation? (3)
Sympath - adventitia - innvervate bv
Parasympath - inner muscle and adventita - effererent fibres of micturition reflex
Sensory fibre - sensory afferent fibres of micturition reflex
Prostatic - 3cm transitional . Ejacculatory ducts enter. Small prostatic ducts empty into.
Membranous - 1cm - ext voluntary skeletal sphincter - pass thru deep perineal pouch - strat/pseudo strat columnar epi
Spongy - glands of litre and cowper glands empty here - pseudostart columnar. End= strat squamous - 15cm
Transitional -> squamous