2.5 Urinary System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.5 Urinary System Deck (75):
0

Function of urinary system (3)

Maintenance of water, electrocytes and acid/base of blood
Excretion of waste products
Hormonal: renin(control bp), erythropoietin(rbc), vit D(control calcium)

1

Where does filtration of water and low molec substances occur?

Renal corpuscle

2

What does the renal corpuscle consist of?

Glomerus and bowman's capsule

3

Where selective reabsorption of h2o and molecules except waste
And h+ secretion occur?

Tubule

4

From blood into tubules there is?

secretion of excretory products

5

Glomerular filtrate and urine production rates?

120ml / min
1ml / min

6

-The kidney is a .... Organ.
-Dimensions (l,w,t)
Surrounded by (2)

Parenchymous
12, 6.5, 3
Fibrous capsules, perinephric fat

7

Areas of kidney

Renal capsule, cortex, pyramids, sinus, papillae, major/minor calyces, renal pelvis. Renal columns

8

What is the cribiform area in the kidneys?

Opening of papillary ducts

9

Urinary tract (5)

Major and minor calycyes
Pelvis
Ureter
Urinary bladder
Urethra

10

Urethra in males and female

Males - organ of urinary + reproductive system
Females - short

11

Kidney main location (vetebrae) and position with respect to peritoneum?

T12-L3
Extra Peritoneal - surrounded by fascia and adipose (hilium of kidney)

12

Kidney function main (3)

Maintenance of water, electrolytes and acid/base homeostasis
Excretion of waste products (urea, uric acid)
Hormonal and met functions (3)

13

Kidney hormonal functions (3)

Renin - raas pathway
Erythropoietin - ++ rbc
Vit D - ca balance

14

Renal sinus contains?

Adipose tissue

15

How many pyramids and nephrons per kidney

8 and 1m
Nephron = functional unit

16

Nephron involved in?

Filtration of blood and modifying filtration (absorption and reabsorption)

17

Structure of kidney - weight, l, w, h and surrounded by?

150-170gr
12,6.5,3 cm
Fibrous capsule - surrounded by perinephric fat

18

Structure and vascularisation of kidney tightly related

Aorta - renal arteries - 5x segmental art- interlobar art - interlobular art - arcuate art
Interlobular art -> afferent art -> glomerus -> efferent arteriole

19

Surface of kidney..
During pathological situation color....

Smooth.
Dark

20

Cortex and percentage of nephrons?

95%

21

Renal lobe contains

Cortex and medulla

22

Renal lobule also called?

Only cortex
2 interlobular artery surround by medullary rays

Also called cortical lobule

23

Glomeruli only found in?
And when this contains no glomeruli?

Cortex.
Cortex corticis

24

Arcuate artery ->

Vasa recta in medulla and cortex

25

Nephron and capp

Tighly related

26

Bowmans capsule also named?

Malpighian corpuscle

27

JM = juxtaglomrular
Cortical nephron
Jm nephron

In cortex

Jm - loop of henle in medulla, longer nephron, more efficient conc of urine

28

Renal papillae (2)

Projects into pelvicalyceal space
Opening large straight ducts into crib-rated area

29

How much CO cardiac output into kidney in one day?

20%

30

4 main steps in urine production - frsc

Filtration,
Reabsorption and secretion by tubules
Concentration by removal of water

31

Kidney cortex contains? (3)

Cortex corticis
Cortex labyrinth
Medullary rays : straight tubules + collecting tubules

32

Medulla ,(2)

Pyramids : straight tubules and collecting ducts
Renal columns
Loopof henle

33

Uniferous pole and what type of cells?

Glomerular filtrate to prox convu tubules

Cuboidal cells

34

Bowmans capsules 2 layers

Parietal - simple squamous
Visceral - podocytes

35

Glomerular capp are?

Fenestrated with cont basement membrane/lamina

36

Filtration membrane contains? (5)

Capp space
Capp endi
Bm
Foot process of podocyte and fenestrations
Capsular space filtrate

37

Juxtaglomerular apparatus

Juxtaglomerular cells
Macula densa
Extraglomerula mesangium

38

Raas pathway

Renin - angiotensinogen -> angiotensin 1 -> 2 - aldesterone
Increase na reabsorption -> water reabsorption increase bp.

Stim by low bp and nerve impulses during stress

39

Angiotensin 2 (4)

Vasoconstriction
Vasopressin rel by pituitary gland
Adrenal gland rel - adrenaline(+nor), aldesterone

40

Calyces and pelvis height

2-3cm

41

Ureter 3 constrictions

Uteropelvic junction
Pelvic inlet - common iliac art split into int and external
Entrance to bladder

42

Ureter active role in

Transport of urine and ant to comm iliac art and vein

43

Post of bladder

Ureter, vas deferens, seminal vesicle, musuclar post of bladder, prostate

44

Bladder sup view of inf wall?

Ureter orific
Trigone
Interuteric folding
Internal uretral meatus

45

Urinary bladder holds how much urine!

250ml - 300ml

46

Antireflux mechanism
What delimits orifice?

Bladder fills - intramural portion of bladder = compressed
Orifice delimited by mucosal fold (ureter valve)

47

Urethra in male and female

F - smaller - paraurethral - skere's gland

M - 4 parts - preprostatic, prostatic, membraneous, spongy
Glands of litre - secrete mucus (colloid, gags) -> protect epithelium against urine.

48

Age related kidney fibrosis

Fibroblasts -> increase collagen production (type 1 and 4 & fibronectin)

49

Renal corpuscle : epithelium, major functions, summary (EMS)

E simple squamous - bowmans capsule. Visceral and parietal layer.
M filter blood
S endothelial cells, fused basal lamina, podocyte processes (fenestratiojs in between - pedicles

50

Proximal convoluted tubule : EMS

Epi - simple squamous
Major func-reabsorb all proteins, glucose and aa.
80% of all Na, water and cl ion
Sum - na pumps - remove na - water follows - maintain isotonicity with blood

51

Loop of henle thick decending lim. EMS

E- simple cuboidal - brush border
M - same of pct
S - same as pct

52

EMS : loop of henle - thin decending limb

E simple squamous
M water exits na and cl enter
S blood respect hypertonic
urea also enters lumen of tubule

53

Loop of henle - thin ascending limb ems

E simple squamous
M somewhat permeable to water - enter ultra-filtrate. Na and cl exit
S - blood respect hypertonic
urea enter lumen of tubule

54

Loop of henle - thick ascending limb ems

E simple cuobidal with mito
M - impermeable to water. Cl active transport out. Na follows.
S - ultrafiltrate = hypotonic

55

JG apparatus - macula densa ems

Simple cuboidal cells
M monitor level of na in ultrafiltrate distal tubule
S gap junction - communicate with jg cells in efferent arteriole
NOS synthetase

56

Jg cells afferent arteriole ems

E modded sm cel,s - renin granules
M syn renin, release into bloodstream
S act on plasma cells - angiotensin 2 stim adrenal cortex -> aldosterone (acts on distal convoluted tubule).

57

Distal convuluted tubule ems

E Simple cuboidal - compartmentalised mito.
M - adesterone - cells remove na .
S Hypotonic. K, nh4, h, enter lumen

58

Collecting ducts ems

Simple cuboidal and columnar
M presence of adh permeable to water. Removed from filtrate. Hypertonic urine.
S absense impermeabble to water. Hypotonic urine.

59

Excretory passages- which contain transitional epithelium

Major minor calyces
Renal pelvis
Ureter
Urinary bladder
Female urethra
Male prostatic urethra

60

Excretory passages - which contains pseudostratified or strat columnar

Male membraneous and cavernous urethra (until navicula fossa -> strat squamous)

61

Excretory passages - LP contain reticular, elastic fibres?

Major minor calyces
Renal pelvis
And ureter (also contain collagen)

62

Which excretory passages contain glands of litre

Female urethra
Male prostatic & membranous (few) cavernosus (many)

63

Ureter muscularis and how it conducts urine?

Inner longi, outer circ
Active conducts - peristalsis

64

Muscularis for calyces, pelvis, ureter(3rd additional), urinary bladder (poorly defined 3), urethra fem, prostatic urethra male

Inner longi, outer circ of sm.
Ureter and urinary bladder (poorly defined) - 3rd outermost longi

65

Urethra male - muscularis - membranous, cavernous

Membranous - striated - ext sphinter
Cavernous - few sm with elastic fibres

66

Mesangium cells and juxtaglomerular cells derived from?

Smooth muscle cell precursor

67

Mesangium cells function PSSM

Phagocytosis
Structural support
Secretion
Modulate glomerular distension - response to high bp

68

Macular densa different from other juxtaglomerular cells?

Req special stains, nuclei partially superimposed over each other, taller

69

Smooth muscle of bladder wall forms?
Opening of urethra these form?
What arrangement around this?
Arrangement of sm in this muscle?

Detrusor muscle
Internal urethral sprincter with ring like arrangement
Sm bundles less regular than tubular portion of excretory passages -> mixed with collagen bundles

70

What muscle contracts -> urine into urethra?

Detrusor muscle of bladder

71

Bladder innervation? (3)

Sympath - adventitia - innvervate bv
Parasympath - inner muscle and adventita - effererent fibres of micturition reflex
Sensory fibre - sensory afferent fibres of micturition reflex

72

Urethra male

20cm
Prostatic - 3cm transitional . Ejacculatory ducts enter. Small prostatic ducts empty into.
Membranous - 1cm - ext voluntary skeletal sphincter - pass thru deep perineal pouch - strat/pseudo strat columnar epi
Spongy - glands of litre and cowper glands empty here - pseudostart columnar. End= strat squamous - 15cm

73

Urethra female

3-5cm
Longi folds
Transitional -> squamous

74

Medullary rays contain?
Region between medullary rays contain?

Straight tubules and collecting ducts

Corpuscles, convoluted tubules and collecting tubules - cortical labyrinths