Cartilage Bones Joints Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cartilage Bones Joints Deck (60):
1

Most common cartilage?

Hyaline

2

Where do you find hyaline cartilage?

ribs, articular surfaces, trachea

3

describe hyaline cartilage

stiff, flexible, compression resistant

4

Cartilage separated by?

extracellular matrix

5

hyaline ECM contains4 things:

1. collagen II
2. aggrecans
3. hyaluronic acid
4. chondronectin

6

What is elastic cartilage?

hyaline + more elastin

7

where is elastic cartilage?

ear, epiglottis, larynx

8

fibrocartilage what kind of collagen?

type 1

9

fibrocartilage histology?

dense CT with islands of cartilage

10

where find fibrocartilage?

meniscus and intervertebral discs

11

any perichondrium in fibrocartilage?

Nope.

12

annulus fibrosis made of?

fibrocartilage

13

nucleus pulposus is collagen type?

II
replaced by fibrocartilage by age 20

14

where are Haversion systems?

compact bone

15

trabecular bone made of?

lamellae
continuous spaces

16

trabecular bone full of? 2 things

marrow and blood vessels

17

how do osteocytes get their nutrients?

in contact with marrow cavity through their processes (canaliculi)

18

What is in the medullary cavity?

yellow or red marrow

19

what is red vs. yellow marrow?

red: haemopoeitic (earlier in life)
yellow: fat cells (later in life)

20

yellow marrow useless?

Nope. preserves some haemopoietic cells and activate if necessary.

21

blood vessels in medullary cavity have what instead of capillaries?

sinusoids

22

bones covered with thin layer of CT inside and out called?

Periosteum
Endosteum

23

Periosteum contains 2 layers what are in it?

Outer: fibroblasts, vessles, collagen
Inner: osoteoprogenitors

24

endosteum contains?

osteoprogenitor cells for repair

25

where on the bone is there no periosteum or endosteum?

tendon or ligament anchors/attachments

26

what are Sharpey's fibres?

collagen fibres from tendons and ligaments penetrating bone surface

27

arteries of bone supply?

discrete points
diaphysis, epiphysis, periosteum separately

28

which nervous system supplies bone? what do they follow?

sympathetic nervous system, follows blood vessels

29

joint surface have what? describe

hyaline cartilage
slippery, smooth, compression resistant

30

joint surface have periochondrium? consequences?

Nope. not supported by nutrients

31

synovial fluid purpose?

lubrication
nutrients for hyaline cartilage

32

joints are lined by what?

synovial membrane, NOT epithelium

33

synovial membrane lacks what 3 things? so what?

1. basement membrane
2. tight junctions
3. desmosomes
therefore leaky

34

synovial fluid originates?

deep to synovial membrane

35

bone is inert?

dynamic tissue

36

what is an osteon?

Haversion system

37

3 cells that make/maintain bone?

osteoprogenitor
osteoblast
osteocyte

38

osteoprogenitor shape? where is it? renewed how?

flat
endosteum and periosteum
resting normally, renewed from bone marrow stem cells

39

osteoblast makes what?

osteoid to allow for hydroxy appetite deposition

40

osteoid is collagen type?

Type I

41

measure what in blood to see bone building activity?

alkaline phosphatase

42

inactive osteoblasts look?

flattened

43

purpose of osteocyte? where is it?

maintains bones
can destroy local bone to free Ca2+
entombed by bone

44

Descrobe osteoclasts? purpose?

Giant multinuclear cells
Remodel Bone

45

osteoclasts secrete?

HCl (bone)
and proteases (collagen

46

what is marker of osteoclast activity?

tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase

47

osteoclasts origin related to?

granulocytes/macrophages

48

osteoclasts stick around?

apoptose when not needed

49

PTH and calcitonin on osteoclasts ?

PTH increases
calcitonin decreases osteoclasts

50

bone during development laid down as either:

membrane bone
endochondral bone

51

membrane bone forms how? which structures?

directly from mesenchyme (skull, flat bones, mandible, clavicles)

52

endochondral bone works how?

cartilage model then it is destroyed and replaced by bone (not calcified cartilage)

53

how does bone replace cartilage in development?

bone collar around diaphysis
blood vessels invade and bring bone progenitors

54

growth plate fuse when?

21-22 yr old

55

5 layers of growth plate?

R esting zone (hyaline)
P roliferation (chondrocytes)
M aturation (chondrocytes)
H ypertrophic (dying chondros)
O ssification zone

56

5 layers of growth plate mnemonic

Real People Make Happy Occasions

57

what is woven bone?

new bone during repair or development

58

describe woven bone

cellular
collagen
No Haversian system

59

woven bone lasts?

remodelled by osteoclasts and blasts

60

how does remodelling work?

osteoclasts make new cavities, vessels and endosteum invade and new bone!