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Flashcards in Cartilage Facts Deck (12):

What characteristic change appears in cartilage in late-stage osteoarthritis?

Clusters of chondrocytes


key transcription factor involved in the differentiation of cells towards the cartilage lineage



age changes in articular cartilage include the following INCREASES (4)

- chondrocytes size
- protein content
- stiffness (passive glycation leads to increased stiffness of collagen)
- ratio of proteoglycan keratin sulfate to chondroitin sulfate


age changes in articular cartilage include the following DECREASES (5)

- absolute number of cells (becomes hypocellular, despite the fact that individual chondrocytes are increasing in size)
- water content (differentiates from osteoarthritis where water content actually increases)
- solubility
- proteoglycan size
- elasticity


Cartilage changes in osteoarthritis INCREASES (4)

- water content (as a result of the disruption in architecture of the matrix molecules...different than decreased water content seen with normal aging process)

- interleukin-1
- chondrocyte activity and proliferation (clusters)
- metalloproteinase levels
- cathepsins B and D levels


Cartilage changes in osteoarthritis DECREASES (4)

proteoglycan quantity and size
quantity of collagen
modulus of elasticity


aggrecan water facts

can associate with 50 times its weight in water

increases swelling pressure


Moderate distance running has what effect on knee articular cartilage in asymptomatic
distance runners?

The knee adapts to exercise by increasing the
glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content


During early arthritis, which collagen type is found to be increased?

Type X collagen


Increased local strains
above the threshold results in an increase of Col X mRNA expression


structure of cartilage proteoglycans can be described as


multiple glycosaminoglycans bound to core protein, which is subsequently bound to hyaluronate via a link protein


boundary lubrication

bearing surface is non-deformable

lubricant only partially separates surfaces

superficial zone proteins (lubricin)


superficial zone protein

like lubricin this is a boundary lubricant in the superficial zone