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Flashcards in Cartilage Facts Deck (12):
1

What characteristic change appears in cartilage in late-stage osteoarthritis?

Clusters of chondrocytes

2

key transcription factor involved in the differentiation of cells towards the cartilage lineage

sox-9

3

age changes in articular cartilage include the following INCREASES (4)

- chondrocytes size
- protein content
- stiffness (passive glycation leads to increased stiffness of collagen)
- ratio of proteoglycan keratin sulfate to chondroitin sulfate

4

age changes in articular cartilage include the following DECREASES (5)

- absolute number of cells (becomes hypocellular, despite the fact that individual chondrocytes are increasing in size)
- water content (differentiates from osteoarthritis where water content actually increases)
- solubility
- proteoglycan size
- elasticity

5

Cartilage changes in osteoarthritis INCREASES (4)

- water content (as a result of the disruption in architecture of the matrix molecules...different than decreased water content seen with normal aging process)


- interleukin-1
- chondrocyte activity and proliferation (clusters)
- metalloproteinase levels
- cathepsins B and D levels

6

Cartilage changes in osteoarthritis DECREASES (4)

proteoglycan quantity and size
quantity of collagen
cross-linking
modulus of elasticity

7

aggrecan water facts

can associate with 50 times its weight in water

increases swelling pressure

8

Moderate distance running has what effect on knee articular cartilage in asymptomatic
distance runners?

The knee adapts to exercise by increasing the
glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content

9

During early arthritis, which collagen type is found to be increased?

Type X collagen

 

Increased local strains
above the threshold results in an increase of Col X mRNA expression

10

structure of cartilage proteoglycans can be described as

 

multiple glycosaminoglycans bound to core protein, which is subsequently bound to hyaluronate via a link protein

11

boundary lubrication

bearing surface is non-deformable


lubricant only partially separates surfaces


superficial zone proteins (lubricin)

12

superficial zone protein

like lubricin this is a boundary lubricant in the superficial zone