cell bio test 4 Respiratory Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in cell bio test 4 Respiratory Deck (36):
1

which direction will cancer spread through lymphatics of esophagus?

cephalad and caudad (vertically)

2

functions of conducting airways

transport, condition, filter air

3

functions of respiratory airways

respiration :) they have alveoli

4

name extrapulmonary conducting airways

nasal vestibule and cavity, nasopharynx and oropharynx, larynx, trachea and primary bronchi

5

name intrapulmonary conducting airways

secondary (lobar) bronchi, tertiary (segmental) bronchi-including terminal bronchus, primary bronchiole, secondary pulmonary lobule, pulmonary acinus

6

what is anthracotic pigment? Where found?

pigment consumed by macrophages that is flowing through lymphatics within the interlobular septa of the lung

7

lymphatic vessels are associated with what airways?

conducting (I think)

8

Respiratory airways

respiratory bronchiole, primary pulmonary lobule, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli

9

what type of epithelium is the olfactory?

pseudostratified columnar

10

describe olfactory receptor cells

or just look at a picture on slide 9

11

what the heck is a sustentacular cell?

columnar cell with apical microvilli--supporting cell. Nourishes olfactory cells. Contain lipofuscin granules making them appear yellow-brown

12

brush cell

transduces sensory stimulation of mucosa to CN V, apical domain has microvilli

13

basal cells

stem cells of this layer--replenish brush, sustentacular, and olfactory receptor cells. Pyramidal shaped

14

What layer houses Bowman's glands? What do they secrete?

found in lamina propria, serous secretions contain odorant-binding protein.

15

What is the function of swell bodies?

allow one side of the nose to rehydrate by swellling and shifting airflow to other nostril

16

what part of the larynx has non-keratinized, stratifies squamous epithelium?

surfaces that are subject to abrasion or vibration: vocal folds, anterior surfaces of epiglottis, and exterior laryngeal surfaces

17

what type of epithelium lines most of the larynx?

respiratory epithelium--ciliated, pseudostratified columnar with goblet cells. This is very important for mucociliary clearance

18

what is found in the lamina propria of larynx?

seromucous glands (keep vocal folds moist), vocal ligament (overlies vocalis muscle of true vocal cord), reinke's space (between basal lamina and vocal ligament)

19

describe the wall layers of trachea and primary bronchus

mucosa, submucosa with glands, cartilage (and trachealis), adventitia

20

describe the wall layers of intrapulmonary bronchi

mucosa, muscularis, submucosa with glands, cartilage, adventitia

21

Describe wall layers of bronchioles

mucosa, muscularis, fibroelastic CT layer

22

what cells found in mucosa?

ciliated columnar, goblet, brush, basal, neuroendocrine, intraepithelial lymphocytes, mast cells

23

submucosa

seromucous glands--secretions include alpha-1 antitrypsin (a protease inhibitor). A deficiency of alpha-1-antitrypsin leads to the development of a form of emphysema

24

cartilage

hyaline cartilage and smooth muscle, also intrapulmonary bronchi have discontinuous plates of cartilage

25

adventitia

fourth layer of trachea and bronchus

26

how do asthma and chronic bronchitis affect airway?

thicker basal lamina, edema and inflammation of wall, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of glands and goblet cells as well as smooth muscle cells

27

cells in mucosa of bronchioles

goblet cells in large bronchioles--increase with chronic irritation, club cells (secrete surfactant [not same as type II alveolar] and make club cell protein, and replace bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells, also a few brush and neuroendocrine

28

what is different about lamina propria of bronchioles?

no glands

29

purpose of fibrous CT in bronchioles?

maintain patency of bronchioles

30

type I alveolar cell (pneumocyte)

40% of population but 90% of surface area, facilitate gaseous diffusion, can't divide

31

type II alveolar cell (pneumocyte)

60% of population but only 10% of surface area, contain lamellar bodies that secrete surfactant, can divide to produce type I or II pneumocytes

32

how is surfactant formed

receptor-mediated endocytosis

33

surfactant synthesis

need cortisol to induce surfactant synthesis or lungs collapse. Insulin inhibits corticosteroids--diabetic mothers=higher respiratory distres syndrome

34

alveolar macrophages

different locations depending on where they migrate. Heart failure cells are macrophages loaded with hemosiderin from blood in lungs

35

where are the continuous capillaries?

interalveolar septum

36

describe the blood-gas barrier

type I pneumocytes, fused basal laminae, endothelial cells of continuous capillary, may be as thin as 0.2 micrometers