which direction will cancer spread through lymphatics of esophagus?
cephalad and caudad (vertically)
functions of conducting airways
transport, condition, filter air
functions of respiratory airways
respiration :) they have alveoli
name extrapulmonary conducting airways
nasal vestibule and cavity, nasopharynx and oropharynx, larynx, trachea and primary bronchi
name intrapulmonary conducting airways
secondary (lobar) bronchi, tertiary (segmental) bronchi-including terminal bronchus, primary bronchiole, secondary pulmonary lobule, pulmonary acinus
what is anthracotic pigment? Where found?
pigment consumed by macrophages that is flowing through lymphatics within the interlobular septa of the lung
lymphatic vessels are associated with what airways?
conducting (I think)
respiratory bronchiole, primary pulmonary lobule, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli
what type of epithelium is the olfactory?
describe olfactory receptor cells
or just look at a picture on slide 9
what the heck is a sustentacular cell?
columnar cell with apical microvilli--supporting cell. Nourishes olfactory cells. Contain lipofuscin granules making them appear yellow-brown
transduces sensory stimulation of mucosa to CN V, apical domain has microvilli
stem cells of this layer--replenish brush, sustentacular, and olfactory receptor cells. Pyramidal shaped
What layer houses Bowman's glands? What do they secrete?
found in lamina propria, serous secretions contain odorant-binding protein.
What is the function of swell bodies?
allow one side of the nose to rehydrate by swellling and shifting airflow to other nostril
what part of the larynx has non-keratinized, stratifies squamous epithelium?
surfaces that are subject to abrasion or vibration: vocal folds, anterior surfaces of epiglottis, and exterior laryngeal surfaces
what type of epithelium lines most of the larynx?
respiratory epithelium--ciliated, pseudostratified columnar with goblet cells. This is very important for mucociliary clearance
what is found in the lamina propria of larynx?
seromucous glands (keep vocal folds moist), vocal ligament (overlies vocalis muscle of true vocal cord), reinke's space (between basal lamina and vocal ligament)
describe the wall layers of trachea and primary bronchus
mucosa, submucosa with glands, cartilage (and trachealis), adventitia
describe the wall layers of intrapulmonary bronchi
mucosa, muscularis, submucosa with glands, cartilage, adventitia
Describe wall layers of bronchioles
mucosa, muscularis, fibroelastic CT layer
what cells found in mucosa?
ciliated columnar, goblet, brush, basal, neuroendocrine, intraepithelial lymphocytes, mast cells
seromucous glands--secretions include alpha-1 antitrypsin (a protease inhibitor). A deficiency of alpha-1-antitrypsin leads to the development of a form of emphysema
hyaline cartilage and smooth muscle, also intrapulmonary bronchi have discontinuous plates of cartilage
fourth layer of trachea and bronchus
how do asthma and chronic bronchitis affect airway?
thicker basal lamina, edema and inflammation of wall, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of glands and goblet cells as well as smooth muscle cells
cells in mucosa of bronchioles
goblet cells in large bronchioles--increase with chronic irritation, club cells (secrete surfactant [not same as type II alveolar] and make club cell protein, and replace bronchiolar and alveolar epithelial cells, also a few brush and neuroendocrine
what is different about lamina propria of bronchioles?
purpose of fibrous CT in bronchioles?
maintain patency of bronchioles
type I alveolar cell (pneumocyte)
40% of population but 90% of surface area, facilitate gaseous diffusion, can't divide
type II alveolar cell (pneumocyte)
60% of population but only 10% of surface area, contain lamellar bodies that secrete surfactant, can divide to produce type I or II pneumocytes
how is surfactant formed
need cortisol to induce surfactant synthesis or lungs collapse. Insulin inhibits corticosteroids--diabetic mothers=higher respiratory distres syndrome
different locations depending on where they migrate. Heart failure cells are macrophages loaded with hemosiderin from blood in lungs
where are the continuous capillaries?
describe the blood-gas barrier
type I pneumocytes, fused basal laminae, endothelial cells of continuous capillary, may be as thin as 0.2 micrometers