Female Reproductive I Flashcards Preview

Cell Bio Test IV > Female Reproductive I > Flashcards

Flashcards in Female Reproductive I Deck (29):

Which type of cells release GnRH - acidophils, basophils, or chromophobes?



What's the pathway GnRH takes from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary?

Primary capillary plexus
Hypophyseal portal vein
Secondary capillary plexus


FSH and LH are released from which type of cells?

Gonadotropes - a basophil


What releases estrogen and progesterone in the female body?

What happens after ovulation to these cells?

The Granulosa cells in the ovary (which surrounds the maturing oocyte)

These cells also stay around and become the corpus luteum
- With no implantation: produce estrogen and PG for 2 weeks, then becomes corpus albicans (white body), PG and estrogen drop, triggers menses
- With implantation, corpus luteum stays around for a long time due to hCG released from syscytiotrophobolast, continues to secrete estrogen and PG


Which hormone spikes at midcycle to trigger ovulation



What are the histologic layers/features of an ovary?

Germinal epithelium - simple squamous or cuboidal (70% of cancers from this layer)

Tunica albuginea (whitish capsule) -

Cortical region - CT stroma with smooth muscle fibers and many ovarian follicles. Oocytes mature here

Medullary region - Core of the ovary;

Oocytes and Hormones


What type of CT is the tunica albuginea?

Dense Irregular CT


What type of CT is the medullary region of the ovary?

Loose CT; has blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves

Is spongy!


1D, 2D, 4D...

1D = DNA in 23 single chromosomes
2D = DNA in 46 single chromosomes or 23 double
4D = DNA in 46 double chromosomes


What happens during oogenesis?

2 sequential meiotic cell divisions
Produces 1 egg and 3 polar bodies


When does meiosis I begin? What happens?

Begins prenatally

Begins, then STOPS AT PROPHASE 1 until just before ovulations


What is a primary oocyte?

An oocyte that has been arrested at Prophase 1
It is still 2n-4d


At birth, what types of cells are in the primordial follicle?

Primary oocyte - only cell within primordial follicle


When does an oocyte become a secondary follicle?

At the end of meiosis I - cell went from 2n-4d to 1n-2d


What is a Graafian follicle?

A secondary oocyte that has continued meiosis II, but is arrested at METAPHASE II


Which stage of meiosis is the egg in at the time of ovulation?

Metaphase II

Meiosis II completed, and becomes mature ovum, only if fertilized by a sperm

Egg splits from 1n-2d to 1n-1d + polar body
2 additional polar bodies are generated during meiosis II from division of polar body I, but it's degenerate


What are oogonia?

Primordial germ cells from umbilical vesicle (yolk sac) which have migrated to ovaries

At birth, no oogonia - have primary oocytes


So with all these "oo-" words floating around...what type of egg/cell is released AT ovulation?

Secondary oocyte (has gone through meoisis I)
In metaphase II


What consists of a follicle?

Oocyte surrounded by layer(s) of epithelial follicular granulosa cells


How many oogonia are present in a newborn at birth?

None. They're known as primary oocytes, having begun meiosis I


What are the layers of a primordial follicle?

Most simple - primary oocyte

Simple squamous follicle cells with DESMOSOMES

Basal lamina

Formed prenatally, dormant, present in ovary at birth until menopause


What are the types of growing follicles?

Primary follicle (not to be confused with primordial follicle)

Late primary follicle

Secondary follicle


What are the layers of a primary follicle?


It's still a primary oocyte - and produces ACTIVIN, which causes stratification of FOLLICLE CELLS

Has Zona Pellucida - acellular, GAGs, glycoproteins

Simple cuboidal follicle cells
Basal lamina


What is activin?

Secreted by primary oocyte of primary follicle, causes stratification of follicle cells


What are the layers of a late primary follicle?


Zona pellucida

Follicular cells undergo mitosis (due to activin) and become stratified cuboidal GRANULOSA cells (no longer called follicular cells)

Gap junctions between granulosa cells, has filipodia, and oocyte has microvilli

Theca folliculi and Theca Interna


What are theca folliculi and theca interna?

Theca folliculi - capsule around follicle

Theca interna
- steroid-secreting cells
- contain LH receptors
- richly vascularized due to endocrine functions


What are the layers of a secondary follicle?

Primary oocyte
Zona pellucida
Basal lamina

Stratified granulosa cells - secrete fluid LIQUOR FOLLICULI
- forms fluid-filled cavities called ANTRA
Theca interna
Theca externa


What are the layers of a mature (Graafian) follicle?

Primary oocyte (in prophase I) which progresses to secondary oocyte (metaphase II) prior to ovulation

Zona pellucida

Corona Radiata - single layer of granulosa cells surrounding oocyte

Membrana granulosa, cumulus oophorus, corona radiata - all consist of granulosa cells

Liquor folliculi

Antral cavities

Theca interna and Theca externa


What converts androstenedione to estradiol?

Granulosa cells

Theca interna secretes androstenedione, converted by granulosa cells