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Flashcards in Cell Biology Deck (31)
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1

What is the cell membrane?

Phospholipid bi-layer separating a cell from its environment creating homeostasis; found in both plant cells and animals cells; allows endo/exocytosis and the creation of vesicles;

2

What is the cell wall?

rigid to semi-rigid wall surrounding plasma membrane' contains pores to allow passage of cells in and out

3

What is a chloroplast?

Organelle only found in plant cells; where cells convert sunlight into usable energy

4

What is the cytoplasm?

Fluid in which all organelles sit; contains enzymes for catalysing chemical reactions of metabolism;

5

What is differentiation?

changing from one cell type to another; typically becoming more specialized

6

What is the endoplasmic reticulum?

organelle involved in protein and lipid synthesis

7

What is a eukaryote?

one cell with specialized organelles; it is believed that organelles were also originally prokaryotes but were swallowed by other prokaryotes

8

What is the flagella?

folds within the mitochondrion

9

What is the fluid mosaic model?

phospholipid bi-layer

10

What is the Golgi apparatus?

involved in secretion and intracellular transport; surrounded by many vesicles

11

What does hydrophilic mean?

Likes water

12

What does hydrophobic mean?

Dislikes water

13

What is the lysosome?

membrane bound sac of enzymes that digest particles the cell thinks are harmful

14

What is the mitochondrion?

"powerhouse of the cell"; where cellular respiration occur to produce usable ATP for the cell;

15

What does multicellular mean?

Many cells acting together for a common cause that have specialized

16

What is the nuclear membrane?

double membrane surrounding nucleolus

17

What is the nucleus?

Where DNA is stored and where rNA synthesizes proteins

18

What is the phospholipid bi-layer?

membrane consisting of phosphorus heads attached to lipid tails; lipid tails connect to each other to make a membrane; lipid layer is hydrophobic

19

What are pili?

Small hairs on the outside of a prokaryotic cell that contribute to movement

20

What is a prokaryote?

primitive cell which lacks membrane bound organelles

21

What are 70S ribsosomes vs 80S ribosomes?

sites of protein synthesis (70S scattered throughout cytoplasm rather than in rough ER)

22

What is specialization?

Cells that have differentiated in structure and function.

23

What are stem cells?

Cells that have not specialized to perform a specific task (ie. liver cells, muscle cell); can be used in medical application to replace damaged tissue;

24

What does unicellular mean?

One cell

25

What is the vacuole?

largest organelle (2/3 of the space in plant cells); stores nutrients;

26

What are vesicles?

membrane bound sac used for transportation

27

What is the calculation for total magnification?

total magnification = eyepiece lens magnification x objective lens magnification

28

What is the calculation for magnification?

size of the image / actual size of specimen

29

What is the calculation for length of specimen?

length of specimen = size of image / magnification

30

What is plasmid?

small circular pieces of naked DNA in addition to main chromosome of prokaryotic cells