Human Physiology - Gas Exchange Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Human Physiology - Gas Exchange Deck (33)
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1

What is a type 1 pneumocyte?

cells responsible for gas exchange in the alveoli

2

What is a type 2 pneumocyte?

cells that secrete surfactant

3

What is surfactant?

substance secreted by type 2 pneumocytes that reduces surface tension and prevents alveolar cells from collapsing on each other

4

What is inspiration?

breathing in

5

What is expiration?

breathing out

6

What are the internal intercostal muscles?

inner muscles between ribs that cause the rib cage to contract

7

What are the external intercostal muscles?

outer muscles in between robs that cause the rib cage to expand

8

What are chemoreceptors in respiration?

cells that detect the variation of oxygen and CO2 in arterial blood

9

What is hemoglobin?

protein responsible for transporting oxygen or CO2

10

what is total lung capacity?

the total capacity of air your lungs can hold

11

What is vital capacity?

the greatest possible volume of air that can be expelled from the lungs after taking the deepest possible breath

12

What is residual volume?

amount of air left in the lungs after a forced expiration

13

What is tidal volume?

difference between volumes after a normal inhalation and a normal expiration

14

What is expiratory reserve volume?

maximum volume of air that can be expelled from the lungs after normal expiration

15

What is inspiratory reserve volume?

maximum amount of additional air that can be drawn into the lungs by determined effort after normal inspiration

16

What is diffusion?

movement from high concentration to low concentration

17

What is carbonic anhydrase?

enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of dissolved bicarbonates and carbon dioxide

18

What is the nasopharynx?

piece of pharynx connected to the nasal cavity; connects to the oropharynx

19

What is the oropharynx

piece of pharynx connected to the oral cavity; connects to the nasopharynx

20

What is the trachea?

tube reinforced with rings of cartilage connecting larynx to bronchus

21

What is the epiglottis?

piece of cartilage that separates the wind pipe and esophagus when swallowing

22

What are the bronchi?

branches off the major air passages to the lungs

23

What are the bronchioles?

minute branches of the bronchi

24

What are the alveolus?

tiny air sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place

25

What is the respiratory epithelium?

epithelium lining the respiratory tract, meant to moisten and protect airways

26

How does gas exchange of oxygen happen between the alveoli and the blood stream?

pressure differentiation, low pressure of oxygen in the blood and high pressure in the alveoli

27

How does gas exchange of carbon dioxide between the alveoli and the blood stream?

high pressure of carbon dioxide on hemoglobin, low pressure of carbon dioxide in the alvoli

28

How is energy released from organic molecules?

energy released from breaking bonds is used to make ATP

29

What is the oxyhemoglobin curve?

describes relationship between oxygen saturation in blood and pressure of oxygen in the blood to determine hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen

30

How does a change in pH impact the oxyhemoglobin curve?

decrease in pH makes curve shift right