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Flashcards in Evolution and Biodiversity Deck (69)
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1

What is Evolution?

The process of things changing over time

2

What is the mechanism of evolution?

Natural Selection

3

What is the evidence for Evolution?

Fossils, Selective Breeding, Homologous Structures, Patterns of Variation,

4

How is the sequence of fossils important?

it matches the pattern in which they would be expected to evolve

5

What is the sequence of evolution?

fungi and worms -> vertebrates -> bony fish -> amphibians -> reptiles -> birds -> mammals

6

What is the evidence from fossils?

the sequence which fossils appear, sequence fits in with the ecology of the group, sequences of fossils

7

How does the sequence of fossils fit in with ecology?

plants existed before animals

8

how is the sequence of fossils important?

it links existing organisms and their likely ancestors

9

What is artificial selection?

repeatedly selecting for and breeding the individuals most suited to human uses

10

Why is selective breeding important to evolution?

It shows selection can cause evolution

11

What is a analogous structure?

structures that have had different origins and have become similar

12

What is convergent evolution?

analogous structures that have become similar because they perform the same or a similar function

13

what is a homologous structure?

structures that look superficially different and perform a different function, but which Darwin called a "unity of type"

14

What is adaptive radiation?

homologous structures which have similar ancestors but have become different because they perform different functions

15

What are vestigial organs?

reduced structures that serve no function, ie appendix, pelvis in snakes and whales

16

What is speciation?

populations of species gradually diverging into separate species by evolution

17

When can natural selection occur?

when there is variation in a species

18

what are the sources of variation?

mutation, meiosis and sexual reproduction

19

What is mutation?

production of new alleles, enlarging the gene pool

20

What is meiosis?

production of new combinations of alleles by breaking up the existing combination in a diploid cell.

21

What is sexual reproduction?

fusion of male and female gametes, offspring has a combination of alleles from two individuals which allows mutations from two individuals to be brought together

22

What is the only source of variation for species that do not reproduce sexually?

mutation

23

what is an adaptation?

characteristics that make an individual suited to its environment and way of life

24

What is over - production of offspring?

species tend to produce more offspring than the environment can support

25

What is differential survival and reproduction?

individuals that are better adapted tend to survive and produce more offspring while less adapted tend to die or produce fewer offspring

26

what is inheritance?

individuals that reproduce pass on characteristics to their offspring - heritable

27

Are acquired characteristics significant in evolution?

no

28

what is the binomial system?

the system used to name species, genus species

29

What are the three domains?

Eukaryota, Eubacteria, Archea

30

What are the principle taxa for classifying eukaryotes?

KPCOFGS