Cell Organelles Flashcards Preview

AP Biology 2014 > Cell Organelles > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell Organelles Deck (14):
1

Cytosol

Plants, Animals, or Both: Both 

Function: main component of the cytoplasm, a water based solution where organelles are suspended contents of cell together 

Quick Facts:

  • the cytosol oftem comprises more than 50% of a cell's volume
  • site of protein synthesis
  • home of centrosomes and centrioles

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2

Cell Membrane or Plasma Membrane 

Plant, Animals, or Both: Both 

Location: a thin outer layer for animal cells and an inner layer right inside the cell wall of plant cells

Function: boundary that protects and supports the cell and allows movement of materials in and out of the cell 

Quick Facts:

  • made of phosopholipid bilayer ( which include phospholids: a phosphate head and lipids tails)
  • the phosphate head is polar and hydrophllic, while the phosphate tails are nonpolar and hydrophobic
  • since the interior of the phospholipid bilayer is hydrophobic  only very small neutral molecules such as water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.

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3

Ribosomes

Plants, Animals or Both: Both

Location: tiny, round structures found on the endoplasmic reticulum and throughout the cytoplasm of a cells

Function: makes proteins 

Quick Facts:

  • created in nucleus 
  • consists of RNA molecules and proteins 
  • specifically, ribosomes translate mRNA into proteins

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4

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Plant, Animals, or Both: Both

Location: distributed throughout the cytoplasm of a cell

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER):

Function: responsible for the synthesis and processig of proteins that are either secreted from the cell or the stuck in the plasma/cell membrane 

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER):

Function: responsible of lipids (fatty acids) and steriods

Quick Facts: 

  • insulin is an example of a secreted protein from the rough ER 
  • the lipids made in the smooth ER are combined with phosphosphorus to create phospholipids. 
  • the steriods made in the smooth ER, especially cholesterol, main components the the plasma membrane that  provide rigidity and structure in the membrnae to keep its general shape.

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5

Lysosomes

Plants, Animals, or Both:

Location: round structure located in the cytoplasm 

Function: digestion and recycling, phagocytosis: the ingestion of bacteria 

Quick Facts:

  • small spheres of phospholipds made by the Golgi bodies
  • aka clean up crew- sweeps up dead cell parts and waste material

 

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6

Mitochondria

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7

Nucleus

Plants, Animals or Both: Both & all eukaryotic cells

Location: located in the center of the cell 

Function: store and protect cell's genetic material (DNA), assemble ribosome subunits

Quick Facts

  • aka the control center of the cell
  • contains a nucleolus that holds nucleic acids and proteins
  • there are nuclear pores through which the nucleus communicates with the rest of the cell
  • chromosomes exist in the nucleus and are organized structres of DNA

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8

Cytoplasm (including cytoskeleton)

Plants, Animals or Both: Both & All eukaryotic cells

Function: a gel-like substance in which all organelles are suspended

cytoskeleton: a protein framework that determines the underlying structure of the cytoplasm 

Quick Facts:

  • "cyto" means inside the cell

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9

Golgi Bodies

Plants, Animals or Both: Both & in most eukaryotic cells

Location: located in the cytoplasm near the endoplasmic reticulum and the nucleus 

Function: protein processing- marks protein for secretion in the RER and packages lipids and steriods made in the SER

Quick Facts:

  • The golgi bodies are membrane disks called cisternae
  • cisternae often buds off and form lysosomes

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10

Vesicles

Plants, Animals or Both: Both & most eukaryotic cells

Location: suspended in the cytoplasm near the Golgi complex

Function: responsible for transporting proteins, lipids, and steriodsl

Quick Facts:

  • small spheres of phospholipids made by the Golgi bodies 

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11

Centrioles

Plants, Animals or Both: All animals

Location: a small, barrel-shaped tube composed of protein located in the cytoplasm

Function: cell division, cell reproduction, cell growth; 

Quick Facts:

  • cells with damaging centrioles cannot form functional flagella or cilia, which could lead to death of an organism.

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12

Cell Wall

Plants, Animals or Both: Plants 

Location: just outside the plasma membrane

Function: to pride structure and protection to the cells

Quick Facts:

  • the cell wall help resist turgor pressure
  • plant cell walls have small openings called plasmodesmata which allows cells to communicate with other cells
  • plant cell walls are made of cellulose
  • fungal cell walls are made of chitin 

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13

Chloroplasts

Plant, Animal or Both: Plant 

Location: in the cytoplasm of plant cell  

Function: responsible for converting the energy from the sun into chemical energy, usually in  the form of glucose; process of photosynthesis 

Quick Facts: 

  • chloroplasts was once a free living bacteria
  • many plant and algae cells contain small, green organelles

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14

Flagella & CIlia

 

 

Flagella:

  • longer than cilia
  • primarily responsible for cell movement 

Cilia:

  • acts more like short hair 
  • cilia moves back and forth across the outside of the cell ( also responsible for cell movement)




     

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