Anaerobic Respiration and Fermentation Flashcards Preview

AP Biology 2014 > Anaerobic Respiration and Fermentation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anaerobic Respiration and Fermentation Deck (10):
1

Why is it important that acetaldehyde is reduced by NADH to ethanol?

This resupplies NAD+, which is used as an electron acceptor in glycolisis

2

In which organisms does alcohol fermentation occur?

In some plants, fungi, and bacteria.

3

Which organisms must carry out fermentation and often cannot survive in the presence of oxygen?

Obligate Anaerobes

4

Why is there such a difference between the amount of energy produced in anaerobic respiration vs aerobic respiration?

In aerobic respiration pyruvate is completely oxidized and an electron transport chain is used to unlock the energy stored in pyruvate, but anaerobic respirators lack the ability to carry out these processes and less ATP is then produced.

5

What are the two steps by which alcohol is converted into ethanol in alcohol fermentation?

In the first step, carbon dioxide is released from pyruvate, which is then converted to acetaldehyde. In the second step, acetaldehyde is reduced by NADH to ethanol.

6

In which organisms does lactic acid fermentation take place?

In some fungi and bacteria

7

What is the major difference anaerobic respiration and aerobic respiration?

In anaerobic respiration an electron transport chain is used, while in aerobic respiration, no chain is used.

8

What is the oxidizing agent of glycolisis? (Hint: It's not oxygen)

NAD+ is the oxidizing agent of glycolisis making it possible for anaerobic respiration and fermentation to occur.

9

What is a facultative anaerobe?

organisms such as yeasts that make enough ATP to survive either by fermentation or aerobic respiration

10

Which process is known as the fork in the road?

The formation of pyruvate - facultative anaerobes can either carry out aerobic and anaerobic respiration from this point.