Cell/Tissue Injury Flashcards Preview

Foundations Test 4 > Cell/Tissue Injury > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell/Tissue Injury Deck (24):
1

Causes of cell injury

Hypoxia
Ischemia (causes hypoxia)
Physical agents
Drugs and chemicals
Infectious agents
Immunological rxns
Nutritional imbalances
Genetic

2

Response of cells to injury

Adaptation
Injury
Death

3

Adaptation

Cell undergoes changes that allow it to deal with stress

4

Injury and 2 types

If cell is unable to adapt to stress

Reversible - if injurious agent removed then it reverts back to normal

Irreversible - Death is inevitable

5

Response of cell to injury depends on

Lenght of time
Dose
Type of cell

6

Example of type of cell adaption

Neuron less able to adapt than muscle cell

7

Ischemia and hypoxia causes

lack of oxygen which decreases ATP

8

Oxygen derived free radicals will cause

Degradation of cellular proteins, membrane phospholipids, and nucleic acids

9

Role of calcium in cell injury

If injury interferes with calcium ATPases, calcium will enter the cell and activate enzymes

10

Calcium activated enzymes and what they do...one other thing it does

Phospholipiases - destroy membrane phospholipids
Proteases - destroy proteins f membrane cytoskeleton
Endonucleases - DNA/chromatin fragmentation
ATPases - ATP depletion

Also causes mitochondrial permeability so no ATP can be generated

11

ATP depletion leads to what and caused by what?

Cause - decreased ATP synthesis or activation of ATPases

Effect - loss of integrity of cell membrane

12

Common themes in cell death

oxygen
calcium
ATP depletion
Defects in membrane permeability

13

Ischemic/hypoxic reversible injury

Decrease or loss of ATP within cell due to decrease in mitochondrial function...decrease in ATP causes increase in anaerobic glycolysis (generates lactic acid and lowers pH...leads to decreased activity and inactivation of intracellular enzymes...also causes failure of sodium pumps of cells membrane...influx of sodium and water causes swelling which impairs function)

14

Hypoxia/ischemic irreversible injruy

Inability to reverse mitochondrial effects
Profoud distrubance to cell membrane due to loss of phospholipids from membrane (because of decrease in production due to lack of ATP and increase in phospholipase activity),
cytoskeletal abnormalities (calcium activated proteases),
reperfusion injury (oxygen free radicals generated...can extend the injury),
lipid breakdown of products that result from phospholipid degradation have detergent effect on membrane,
loss of intracellular amino acids (mostly from glycine...these protect from oxidative damage)

15

Necrosis morphologic changes

Increased eosinophilia (cytoplasm stains deep pink when stained with H and E)...due to more avid binding of eosin to denatured proteins
Vacuolization (due to digestion of organelles)
Calcification

16

Nuclear necrotic changes

1 of 3

Karyolysis - stains pale blue (vs dark blue)...due to DNA degradation by DNA-ases
Pyknosis - Nuecleus shrinks and becomes darker blue...due to chromatin condensation
Karyorrhexis - nucleus undergoes fragmentation

After 2 days of onset, nucleus disappears

17

Morphology of necrotic tissue

Coagulative - outlines of each cell are preserved...occurs when denaturation of cellular proteins predominates...cell does not autolyze...from ischemia/hypoxia

Liquefactive - cells disappear due to digestion and lysis by enzymes that are derived from cells own lysosomes or white blood cells within area (focal bacterial)

Caseous - appears cheesy...fragmented cells and granular debri...tuberculosis

18

Intrinsic activaiton of initiator caspase

Certain stressors activate intracytoplasmic sensor proteins (member of Bcl-2 family (subclassed BH3- only)...sensors activate Bax and Bak which polymerize into oligomers, insert into mitochondrial membrane...create channel that allow proteins normally within inner mitochondrial membrane to leak into cytoplasm (Bax and Bak also inhibit anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-x and Bcl-2)...because cytochrome c leaks out, will bind to Apaf-1 whcih forms apoptosome hexamer...apoptosome binds to and activates initator caspase 9 which activates caspase 9 molecules

19

Extrinsic pathway of apoptosis

Cell membranes have deathreceptors (like TNFR 1 and Fas)...ligand binds and activates capases 8 and 10...causes activation of other initiator caspases

20

Execution phase of apoptosis

Activated intiator caspase activate executioner caspases (3 and 6)...degrade critical components...cell death

21

Morphologic apoptosis effects

Minimal membrane damage...nuclear chromatin condenses and aggregates to membrane...blebs to form apoptotic bodies...no inflammatory response...involves small numbers of cells

22

Autophagy steps

Autophagic vacuole fuses with lysosome...enzymes digest organelles and move back into cytoplasm

This is good for nutritionally deprived cells

23

Genetic regulation of autophagy

Atg genes

24

Pathologic?
# of cells
Apoptotic bodies
Inflammatory response
Membrane damage

Apoptosis vs. necrosis

Necrosis - always, apop - sometimes
Necrosis - many cells
Bodies only in apop
Apop has no inflam resp
Minimal mem damage in apop