Outcomes of Inflammation Flashcards Preview

Foundations Test 4 > Outcomes of Inflammation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Outcomes of Inflammation Deck (16):

Outcomes of acute inflammation

Resolution (turns back to normal)...only if short lived, lack of major tissue destruction and capable of regeneration

Healing by connective tissue replacement (fibrosis, scarring)...occurs when substantial tissue destruction occured or incapable of regneeration

Abscess formation

Chronic inflammation


Abscess formation

Result of suppurative inflammation from pus which is neutrophils, necrotic cell debris and exudate

Particularly from infections from pyogenic organisms (staphylococcus)

Neutrophils in pus secrete enzymes that can destroy tissue

Cavity filled iwht pus and dead microorganisms...band of neutrophils surrounds


Outcomes of abscess

Collapse of cavity and scar formation

If not possible, microbes will break out of abscess and disseminate via bloodstream (sepsis)


How can chronic inflam occur

From acute
OR in absense of acute which starts as low grade


3 ways chronic inflam can start as low grade

Persistent infections by certain microbes...low toxicity won't initiate acute

Prolonged exposure to certain toxins

Autoimmune dz - own tissue antigens generate abnormal, harmful immune response


Characteristics of chronic inflam

Tissue infiltration by mono nucleated vs. poly from acute
Destruction caused by these cells
Healing by fibrosis



Most important cell of chronic - tissue repair, fibrosis, secretes mediators


Start of chronic inflammation

When monocyte becomes predominant cell type extravasating (about 48 hours after onset)...repleaces neutrophil


Macrophage activated by

Classical pathway - inferferon gamma elaborated by T-lymphocytes...non-immunological endotoxins

Alternate pathway - cytokines other than interferon gamma


Lymphocytes and chronic inf

Secrete lymphkines that activate macrophages...activated macrophages secreted monokines that activate lymphocytes.....so and so forth "vicous cycle"


Plasma cells and chronic inf

Antibody productoon


Granulomatous inflammation

Distinctive type of chronic inf characterized by granulomas in tissue...focal aggregate of macrophages


Immune gradnuloma forms when

Macrophages phagocytose a substance they are unable to degrade (TB, syphilis)

Indigestible substance is immunogenic (induces cell-mediated immune response by T-lymphocytes)...results in transformation of macrophages into epithelioid cells


Morephologic - immune granuloma

Epithelioid cells - macrophages that look like epithelial cells
Langhans giant type cells - huge cells that are fusion of epithelioid macrophages (lots of nuclei around edges)
Necrosis - granuloma may have necrotic center
Could have other cell types as well


Foreign body granuloma

From substances too large to be phagocytosed in a single macrophage...substances NOT capable of eliciting T cell mediated response

Talc, asbetos, silica, surgical suture


Morphological differences of foreign body granuloma

Giatn cells have nuceli arranged randomly throughout cytoplasm
May or may not have other inflammotry cell collar
Foreign body material materail can usually be visualized

Epithelioid ARE still found