Tissues and Organs of the Immune System Flashcards Preview

Foundations Test 4 > Tissues and Organs of the Immune System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tissues and Organs of the Immune System Deck (68):
1

What is big question to ask about pathogen?

How big is it? Intra or extra cellular

2

First thing that happens

Inflammation

3

Goal of immunity

maintain homeostasis

4

2 steps of immunity

Recognition
Effector functions

5

Hematopoietic stem cell becomes

COmmon myeloid progenitor and common lymphoid progenitor

6

Common lymphoid vs common myeloid

Lymph - adaptive
Myeloid - innate

7

What allows ID of lymphocytes?

CD markers

8

Small lymphocyte amounts

20-40%

9

Types of small lymphocytes and their percentages of the lymphocytes

T lympho - helper (50%), cytotoxic (25%)
B lympho - 25%

10

Plasma cells...where are they from, what do they do, where are they found

From B cells
Secretes antibodies (eliminate micro organisms)
Not often found in blood

11

NK cell amount and what does it do?

Kills virus-infected/tumor cells
5% of lymphocytes in blood
Resident in tissue sites

12

Monocyte location, shape, function, differentiation

Kidney nucleus with lots of cytoplasm
Weekly phagocytic and microbicidal
Differentiates to macrophage or dendritic cell upon leaving blood

Mostly found in blood

13

Macrophage function and location

Tissue sites
Phagocytic, microbicidal, tissue repair, activate T cells

14

Dendritic cell location and function

Activate T helper cells, phagocytic,
Mostly in tissue sites

15

Neutrophil morphology, function

Phagocytic and microbicidal
Segmented nucleus

16

Eosinophil morphology, function

Immune response to parasites and allergic immune responses
Red staind granules in cytoplasm

17

Basophil morphology and function

Parasites and allergic responses
Contains histamine (vasodilation) and heparin (anti-coagulant)
Darkly stained nucleus

18

Mast cells and function

Immune and allergic response
Close to blood vessels, skin, etc...similar to basophils

19

Megakaryocyte

Platelet production

20

Leukocyte amounts

Neutrophils - 40-75
Eosinophil - 1-6
Basophil - <1
Monocyte - 2-10
Lymphocyte - 20-50

21

If lymphocyte count high

Then probably viral infection

22

Lymphatic circulatin

Vessels pick up fluid at venule end of capillary network and return to the heart...lymph nodes filter

23

How to lymphocytes get to lymph node from heart?

Arteries

24

How do lymphocytes get from lymph node to heart

Efferent venule to venous system (essentially thoracic duct)

25

Diffuse tissues

Associated with mucosal epithelial surfaces

26

Encapsulated types and what theydo

Primary lymphoid - site of immune cell production
Secondary lymphoid - site of immune cell function

27

Myelopoiesis occurs in

bone marrow

28

Lymphoposiesis occurs in

B - bone marrow
T - thymus

29

Both B and T cells originate during development in the

Liver

30

Clonal proliferation

Happens to B and T cells after exposure to an antigen...those that are specific to a given type proliferate

31

Activation occurs in

Lymph nodes and spleen

32

MALT

Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue - found under any wet epithelium...must be passed through to get into the body

33

Skin lined by

Stratified squamous epithelium

34

Skin cell adhesion

Tight junctions - must be broken to enter

35

Commensal bacteria

Found on surface of skin

36

Mechanical epithelial barriers

Tight junctions
Logitudinal flow of air or fluid
Movement of mucous by cilia

37

Chemical epithelial barriers

Fatty acids
Enzymes
Low pH
Antibacterial peptides (defensins, cryptidins)

38

Microbiological epithelial barriersa

Commensal bacteria compete for nutrients and attachment and can produce antibacterial substances

39

Organized MALT

Tonsils, Peyer's patches, appendix

40

Diffuse MALT

Lamina propria

41

GALT will have

Epithelium with M cells and dendritic cells inside...follicle for B cells and germinal center

42

M cell

Captures things on mucosal surfaces and presents into germinal centers

43

Central tolerance induction

Occurs in the thymus...lymphocytes that posses self-reactivity are eliminated...moves from cortex to medulla

44

Bone marrow is unique in that

It is a primary AND secondayr lymphoid organ

45

How do cells exit marrow

Central sinus

46

What is compartmentalized in the bone marrow

Hematopoeisis

47

Bone marrow is important reservoir for

Neutrophils

48

Neutrophil lifespan

Short (6-8 hours)

49

How to neutrophils get to tissue

Leave bone marrow and pass through endothelium...eat material and degraded by macrophages

50

Spleen is site of

Adaptive immune response to blood borne pathogens

51

Red pulp

Rich in macrophages that filter blood of foreign materials and old RBCs

52

White pulp

Multiple immune cell types present to initiate adaptive immune response

53

PALS

Area surrounding central arterioles rich in T cells

54

Lymphoid follicle

Outpocketing of lymphocytes from PALS rich in B cells

55

Primary lymphoid follicles contain

Naive B cells

56

Secondary lymphoid follicles contain

Outer mantle of naive B cells with germinal center of activated B cells

57

Visceral lymph node types

Pre-vertebral/mesenteric

58

Lymph node is site of

Adaptive immune response to tissue-borne antigens
Filtration units for affarent lymphatic vessels

59

Normal lymph carries

Interstitial fluids/proteins to blood

60

In infection, lymph carriers

Microorganisms and antigens from tissue site

61

What always migrates from lymph nodes to tissue

Dendritic cells

62

High endothelial venule (HEV)

How Naive lymphocytes enter the lymph node (B and T cells)

63

How to lymphocytes exit lymph node?

Single efferent lymphatic

64

Paracortical region

Contains follicles and T-cell rich regions

65

Medulla

Rich in macrophages and plasma cells

66

What enters via affarent lymphatic vessels?

DCs and antigens

67

What enters via artery and vein

Naive lymphocytes (B and T cells)

68

Lymph filtered by

Lymph nodes